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The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lifestyle characteristics and the probability of metabolic syndrome in the Lithuanian middle-aged population of Kaunas city. Study sample was comprised of 1403 individuals aged 35–64 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by International Diabetes Federation definition. Lifestyle habits were evaluated using frequency questionnaires. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was identified in 29.7% of men and 35.1% of women. In men only alcohol intake increased the risk of metabolic syndrome: wine intake daily or several times a week increased the risk of metabolic syndrome in men aged 35–49 years by 3.8-fold whereas intake of spirits once a week or more often increased the risk of metabolic syndrome in men aged 50–64 years by 2.8-fold. In women aged 50–64 years beer intake daily or several times a week (OR=11.9; p=0.015) and some unhealthy nutrition habits - intake of cakes 4 times a week or more often (OR=5.49; p=0.005) and slather spread butter on bread (OR=2.09; p=0.028) increased the odds of metabolic syndrome. Our findings indicated that frequent intake of wine and spirits increased the risk of metabolic syndrome in men; frequent intake of beer, cakes, slather spread butter on bread and low education level increased the risk of metabolic syndrome in women.
Content available remote Predictive values of metabolic syndrome in children
Metabolic syndrome is a clinical term encompassing risk factors (obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension), which yield an increased risk for the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disorders in adolescence. Two sets of criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were applied, the criteria for adults, specifically adapted for children, and the criteria defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). A reliability analysis was conducted; sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of applying certain criteria of both definitions of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome in adolescents was diagnosed much more frequently using the specific criteria (41%) in comparison to the IDF criteria (22%). Using the specific criteria for children and adolescents, it was established that the HDL cholesterol was the most specific and had the largest PPV. Using the IDF criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome, the reliability analysis established that the highest PPV was recorded with the elevated level of triglycerides. The specific criteria have been found to be more efficient in diagnosing metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The highest predictive value was displayed by dyslipidemic disorders, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo HDL cholesterolemia.
Content available remote The predictors of cholelithiasis in female patients with metabolic syndrome
Cholesterol gallstone disease is often associated with the metabolic syndrome. Female gender is an unmodifiable risk factor for cholelithiasis and, in its turn, the metabolic syndrome features a sexual dimorphism which warns that a global approach might overlook important discrimination. We carried out a retrospective analytical case-control study in order to perform a comparative analysis between two groups of female patients with metabolic syndrome and gallstones (n=60) or without gallstones (n=65). All the patients were investigated by abdominal ultrasound and met at least three criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Cases and controls were compared regarding anthropometric measurements, a complex lipid profile, and liver function tests. The risks associated with the likelihood of gallstones were estimated by means of cross-tabulation. In order to rank the significant variables we developed a binary logistic regression model which identified lean body weight ≤ 46.44 kg (OR 0.165; 95% CI 0.045–0.611; P = 0.007), total cholesterol ≥ 4.9 mmol/L (OR 15.948; 95% CI 2.700–94.205; P = 0.002), and direct bilirubin > 5.1 µmol/L (OR 0.056; 95% CI 0.013–0.235; P < 0.001), as variables with significant probability of association with the risk of gallstones in women with metabolic syndrome.
The association of elevated serum uric acid (hyperuricemia, gout) with the presence of classical coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI) has been analysed in many epidemiological studies. Numerous studies have revealed that hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), lipid disorders (especially raised triglyceride (TG) levels and low high dense lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level), and increased creatinine or insulin levels have caused hyperuricemia. Gout has often occurred with typical disorders for the metabolic syndrome X. Significant correlation of the serum uric level and the CAD presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography has been observed in women. Hyperuricemia has also indirect influence on progress of CAD by physical activity restriction, what causes sedentary mode of life and lead to obesity. Therefore, we conducted our study in order to estimate uric acid levels in patients with metabolic syndrome and coexisting cardiovascular system diseases.
Content available remote The weight change impact on metabolic syndrome: a 17-year follow-up study
Introduction: Data on long-term patterns of weight change in relation to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of weight change on the risk of MetS in men. Material and Methods: Prospective longitudinal observation (17.9 ± 8.1 years) of apparently healthy 324 men aged 18–64 years. Metabolic risk was assessed in weight gain (⩾ 2.5 kg), stable weight (> −2.5 kg and < 2.5 kg) and weight loss (⩽ −2.5 kg) groups. Adjusted relative risk (RR) of MetS was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of MetS over follow-up was 22.5%. There was a strong relationship between weight gain and worsening of MetS components among baseline overweight men. Long-term increase in weight was most strongly related with the risk of abdominal obesity (RR=7.26; 95% CI 2.98–18.98), regardless of baseline body mass index (BMI). Weight loss was protective against most metabolic disorders. Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with energy expenditure > 2000 metabolic equivalent/min/week was associated with a significantly lower risk of MetS. Conclusions: Reducing weight among overweight and maintaining stable weight among normal-weight men lower the risk of MetS. High LTPA level may additionally decrease the metabolic risk regardless of BMI.
Food envy is a feeling of isolation experienced by diabetic and obese individuals who have dietary restrictions that prevent them from eating their preferred starchy foods. This can lead to feelings of exclusion and exacerbation in social situations. The psychological strain and emotional toll of avoiding certain foods due to medical restrictions can have negative effects on a person's health, including a higher risk of eating foods to fit in with society and worsen their medical conditions. Rice and yam are popular foods in South Eastern Nigeria, but there is limited information on cooking methods to increase the resistant starch. This lack of information can lead to frustration and feelings of deprivation, making it harder for individuals to adhere to their dietary restrictions. Limited food options may result in nutrient deficiencies, compromising their overall health and well-being. This study aimed to study the effect of different cooking methods, namely conventional and steaming methods, and different cooling methods at room temperature and in the fridge on the resistant starch contents as well as the non-resistant starch contents of rice and yam. The result showed the highest increase in resistant starch of rice (from 1.24 ± 0.42a to 7.41 ± 0.32b) and the highest decrease in the non-resistant starch (from 86.97 ± 2.58a to 36.87 ± 4.87b) when cooked by steaming method and cooled in the fridge at 4 °C for 12 hours. The cooking methods only had a significant increase in the resistant starch of yam only when cooked by conventional boiling method and cooled at room temperature (2.00 ± 0.53a to 5.28 ± 0.18b), though all the cooking methods generally had a decrease in the non-resistant starch contents of yam except the conventional boiling method when cooled at room temperature (84.53 ± 2.60a to 82.55 ± 5.12a).
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