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EN
Joseph Conrad resorted to disguising drastic themes (such as eroticism), which include anthropophagy, described at least upon five occasions. Examined from this viewpoint, 'Heart of Darkness' discloses not only connections with the ethnological conceptions proposed by J. G. Frazer, but also an allegorical key to the plot, originating from Livy, whose writings the young Conrad read while studying for his final secondary school examination in Cracow.
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Content available remote INFLUENCE OF ARABIC IN AFRICA
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The aim of the article is to give an overview of the influence of Arabic on selected African languages. It is based on a survey of African language dictionaries and texts on loan words in some African languages. The spread of Islam in Africa has caused the influence of Arabic on many African languages. This influence is so strong at the level of loanwords that, in some vehicular languages, such as Hausa and Swahili, they exceed 30% of all lexicon. These loans - mainly nouns - have been introduced directly or more often through other languages spoken by Islamic peoples. This article gives some examples of loans common to several African languages particularly those of Western and Central Africa. Regardless of the limited Muslim presence in Bantu Africa, a few loans are found in some Bantu languages such as Zulu, Xhosa, etc. But for various reasons, others such as Acooli, Sango or Dogon have not been influenced by Arabic.
EN
In an introduction to a discussion about Joseph Conrad and colonialism, the authoress proposed a synthetic description of Polish encounters with Africa: from Beniowski. Szolc-Rogozinski, Sienkiewicz, Conrad, Czekanowski and Malinowski to Kapuscinski. She also recalled Poles taking photographs of Africa: starting with Jan Czekanowski, Kazimierz Zagórski and Witold Grzesiewicz, to Ryszard Kapuscinski and Chris Ledóchowski. 'The history of Poland compels her to oscillate between methods deployed by the colonialists and those of the colonised. This past is the reason why Polish encounters with exotic cultures were rarely devoid of intermediaries. The third link, a combination of a matchmaker and a duenna, were usually West European institutions. Conrad and Malinowski arrived from the peripheries and, as writers, were condemned to cosmopolitan European identity and a Polish cultural distance; they examined the world from positions which enabled them to apply encounters with the Other for creating new paradigms of ethnographic subjectivity and self-creation'.
EN
Kazimierz Zagórski (1883-1944), a Polish officer and engineer, arrived in Africa in the mid-1920s, and opened up a photographic studio in Léopoldville. Apart from taking standard photographs he also initiated a project which he described as 'L'Afrique qui disparaît' and which involved taking photographs in the course of specially arranged journeys, always in the so-called natural environment. The photographs depict native inhabitants of a given territory, 'unsullied' by Western civilisation. Strong emphasis is placed on portraits, executed with great attention, a feeling for form and exceptional care for lighting. The sitters were almost always carefully posed and, as a rule, are distant from stereotypes. The photographs certainly focused on a person and not a certain larger entity, which anthropologists were in the habit of calling culture. Both those portraits which showed only the face and those of a larger fragment of a person display features of individualisation (arrangement, lighting) although Zagórski frequently appeared to attach just as much attention to the sitter's face as to the hairdo, scars or other ornaments (which, it must be stressed, were their owners' pride). Naturally, the Zagórski photographs are not devoid of certain ideological operations (aestheticisation, hieratisation, operations associated with temporality, sometimes a 'sui generis' objectivisation). The decontextualisation which he sometimes allowed himself in portraits treating particular parts of the body as equal brings the applied operations close to certain phenomena discernible in contemporary photography (e. g. R. Mapplethorpe or I. Penn). The text originally accompanied an exhibition of photographs by Kazimierz Zagórski (National Art Gallery Zacheta 2005, with the author as co-curator); now, it has been expanded by means of an appendix containing an extremely interesting album by Edward Piterek, a Polish airman in Africa (mid-1940s), based entirely on photographs-postcards by Zagórski, subjected to special processing and classification
EN
The following article discusses chosen examples of Soviet intelligence activities on the African continent during Cold War. It contains events in Angola, Ghana, Egypt, Ethiopia, Somalia and Mozambique. The author presented interference of the Soviet Committee for State Security (KGB) and allied intelligence services in internal and foreign policy of these states.
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The titular discussion was held in 2004 at the 'Maison des Sciences de l'Homme' in Paris as part of an international conference on 'The Construction of Perception: Poland -Europe - Africa'. Its topic was Joseph Conrad and his vision of Africa (i. a. the question of colonialism), contained primarily in 'The Outpost of Progress' and 'Heart of Darkness'.
EN
Recently, the category of political elite in Africa is the one of the most unexplored phenomena in social science. That is why it lies within the interest of many scientific sub-disciplines especially sociology, political science or psychology. Undoubtedly the “wind of political changes” such as: break of communism, decolonisation, occidentalism/westernisation, and neo-colonialism, influences the shape of the African political class. That is why the term is very difficult to both determine and explore. The concept of the African elite is very problematic wich causes too much controversy in the scientific world. The first problem concerns the criterion for distinguishing the African political class, because elites of power in contemporary states in Black Land still function on the basis of traditional values, tribal society and structure, patronage, neo-patrimonial or cliental networks, with intertwining of private and public African spheres. Secondly, the impact of European tradition and political realism meant that African class of power was formed under both the influence of clashes between native tradition and Western modernization. Consequently, a combination of the determinants creates “methodological mosaic,” because the method combines several research techniques in exploration of contemporary elites like: observation, statistical research, quantitative and qualitative, case study, comparative studies, institutionalism historical perspective. The article describes and seeks to explain the current state of research on political elites in Africa.
EN
Using Ekpoma in Nigeria as a case study, this article investigates the impact of Nollywood films on the lives of children, and the possible behavioural implications of emergent visual (mis)representations on African society. It uses the perception/ representation model of ‘NoSRA theory on Gaze Setting’ developed by Kayode Animasaun as a theoretical anchor. The study employs both quantitative and qualitative methods to provide insights into the perceptions of Nigerian (African) children about the films they watch. While a very significant percentage of the sampled population finds Nollywood films such as Issakaba, Beyond Sin, The Destroyer, Ukwa, Ultimate Warrior, Aki and Popo, Black Arrow, Cain and Abel 1&2, Crazy Twins 1, Yahoo Boys etc., interesting and entertaining, a content analysis of many of these films reveals that they are replete with disturbing tropes which are at variance with cherished Nigerian (African) cultural values. Interviews conducted with parents/adults also provided some useful contexts. In spite of the sampled population’s enjoyment of Nollywood films, a clear majority believe that the films do not properly portray or represent Nigerian (African) children. Thus, Nollywood films may have little to offer for the proper development of children. In fact, there is a strong connection between the unwholesome and violent behaviours which the children regularly see on Nollywood videos and their physical exhibition of anti-social behaviours and attitudes such as the frequent use of swear and abusive words, indiscriminate use of lethal objects such as knives, guns, and membership of cult/gang groups, etc., which unfortunately are on the increase in the Ekpoma locality in Nigeria and in many other parts of Africa. To reverse this trend and maximise the gains of Nollywood, this article holds that, among other things, Nollywood content creators should begin to place emphasis on a range of culturally enlivening, entertaining, and character building narratives in scripting and shooting of movies.
EN
Though present on the East African coast for nearly a thousand years, Islam only began its expansion into the interior in the nineteenth century. One of the most significant areas of Islamic penetration in East and Central Africa was the Kingdom of Buganda, where Islam predated the arrival of Christianity by several decades and secured a strong foothold. Buganda was won to Christianity amidst much turmoil and bitter struggle between the adherents of Islam and of two forms of Christianity, represented by Anglican Church Missionary Society and Roman Catholic White Fathers, for the dominant position in the kingdom. Despite severe defeats suffered in Buganda in the late 1880s and throughout the 1890s Islam recovered and survived as a minority religion. However, the latent fear of Islam influenced the language policy and ruined the prospects of Kiswahili in Uganda.
EN
The aim of the paper is to analyse determinants of Chinese outward direct investment in Africa. Dominant theories of foreign direct investment suggest the main motives to invest abroad include cost savings, search for resources, search for new markets and effort to enhance market position. We expose these motives to a statistical analysis based on data on Chinese investments in 50 African countries for time period 2003 – 2011. We use descriptive statistics based on outer terciles of sorted statistical series, pooled regression and fixed effects model. We come to the conclusion that main determinants of Chinese outward direct investment in Africa are size of the domestic market, abundance in natural resources and good trade links with the country.
EN
This article offers a case-specific examination of the effects of colonialism on a local culture and economy - Aso-oke of South-Western Nigeria. In so doing, it provides more evidence to further the assertion that the economic dependency that resulted from colonialism was not an accident, but rather an intentional outcome. This article serves as an excellent example of how current economic and social circumstances cannot be fully understood without substantial knowledge of the past. Through examination of Aso-oke this article used primary data generated through qualitative techniques, archival records and other secondary data to engage research issues. The article concluded that the development and economic history of Aso-oke, hold the prospect for understanding the complications, complexities, contestations and contextualities of the contemporary development of Africa and beyond.
EN
The article tackles the problem of a complex response strategy of the European Union to crisis phenomena on the territory of Africa after 2003 by military and police means, especially to stop mass and serious violations of human rights and to enhance respecting human rights over long periods of time. Military operations of the EU involve foreign policy measures, since the decision-makers (EU member-states) are convinced that only in this way can the political and social situation be stabilized in a given country, enabling the emergence of its internal potential to prevent mass and serious violation of human rights. The article contains a short overview of the operations carried out by the EU and highlights the programmatic-theoretical grounds of the strategy of responding to crisis phenomena in African states.
EN
The informal economy has remained a major part of the Sub-Saharan African economic systems. Critical to this are market place transactions where people meet to purchase and sell wares. Due to the socio-cultural, geographic and economic infrastructures of many traditional African societies, goods to be sold and purchased are transported from one location to another for various purposes. The head porters (alabaru) are thus needed to transport market goods and wares particularly since the African urban market spaces are mostly un-motor able and heavily congested, and the adoption of related technologies is mostly traditionally and culturally determined. Also, against the backdrop of huge unemployment, especially of women, in Nigeria and Africa, head porterage has become and remained an important leeway. Unfortunately, head porterage is poorly studied in scholarly literature. Through comprehensive qualitative data collection and analysis, this article explores head porterage in Ibadan, Nigeria.
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Content available remote Cultural Change and Identity – The Case of Equatorial Africa
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The article attempts to shed light on the issue of cultural change in Equatorial Africa. The model proposed is a movement along an Evolution → Diffusion → Evolution path. Social evolution as well as diffusionism comprises a cognitive consequence of cultural differentiation. Divergence in the levels of cultural socialization remains in direct proportion to the degree of the internal dynamics of a specific socio-cultural system. The domination of culture and the natural environment over the sphere of group interests elucidates the lack of endogenous modification and transformation. In this context education play a very significant role as a factor in changes in identity strategies.
EN
Alchemy, as an expression of an 'abstract' and 'popular' culture, practised in the underworlds of professionals (craftsmen, magicians, healers, pharmacists, etc.), has not drawn yet much attention of African scholars. The aim of the paper is to show the importance of alchemy in the history of Africa to the South of the Sahara. Data from written sources and information collected on the mystical knowledge will be analysed to show the practice of alchemy and the techniques of development of the magic formulas. As to the source of the doctrines it is certain that alchemy, being of divine essence, proceeds from the knowledge of the prophets who hold the keys to them and communicate them to their followers. Like their Eastern and Maghrebian colleagues, West African alchemists, while Islamising and Arabising themselves, enriched the practice of alchemy with knowledge coming from the different civilisations. The aim is to identify old and current spiritual perspectives for these magic-syncretistic practices constituting the common heritage of the religious culture.
EN
The paper analyses the shifting priorities of the Czechoslovak educational development aid to African countries during the 1960s and 1970s within the context of the global system of UNESCO-sponsored development aid programmes. The primary focus is put on the changes in status and contents of services provided by Czechoslovak experts working at scientific and educational institutions in Africa. Drawing on the concept of “semi-peripheral post-coloniality” of Hungarian geographer Zoltán Ginelli, the author interprets the growing tendency towards commercialization of Czechoslovak conceptions of expert service and its closer entanglement with international strategies of development aid as one of the means of convergence between the “Western” and “Eastern” models of development and simultaneously as a possible solution to economic stagnation on the domestic front. The study thus contributes to the current debates about the roles of Eastern European states in the global processes of the Cold War as well as their relations to the “Global South.”
EN
The rise of refugee problems worldwide, particularly the African refugee crisis, inherently underlines the preponderance of the spiking degree of human insecurity in Africa and the definitional and operational shortcomings of the Geneva Refugee Convention of 1951, which was designed to protect the rights of refugees and asylum seekers to safety and express access to neighboring states. This article attempts to unpack how the spiking rate of human insecurity in Africa and the definitive and organizational shortcomings of the 1951 Geneva Refugee Convention have led to the troubling spate of the Mexico-American border African refugee crisis, amongst several unabating largescale migrations to developed world including the European countries. From a case-study methodological standpoint, this study utilizes the advantages of rigorous qualitative data and analysis techniques. Despite the development of the 1951 Geneva Refugee Convention and other international regimes, the increasing numbers of African refugees along the Mexican-American border and around the world remain alarmingly worrying. The African refugee crisis now poses unprecedented dangers to global human security, with over five million people internally displaced and thousands of African refugees seeking asylum along the Mexican-American border. A thorough human based security approach is recommended to address the ravaging human security challenges precipitating the influx of African migrants along the Mexico-American borders.
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The study gives attention to the general characteristics of the international population migration with special focus on intercontinental migration from Africa to the European Union. Based on recent events on Lampedusa Island, in Malta and on the Greek islands, the author draws attention to the growing concern of the general public about the African “march” on Europe. He analyses the impacts of migration and argues that migration brings a large number of problems to European countries that fundamentally influence the politics of liberal-democratic nation-states and leads to the diversification and radicalisation of politics in Europe.
EN
In virtually all regions of sub-Saharan Africa outside the reach of Islam, Africans were introduced to written literature through Christian propaganda. Christian missionaries’ pioneer work in African languages was scientifically very important. Most African languages had at first to be learned and reduced to writing before the difficult but vital task of religious instruction and the preparation, translation and publication of religious texts could be undertaken. Missionaries supplied unwritten African languages with a written form and provided the beginnings of a translated literature. The very first books in most African languages were produced to advance the Christian cause. The linguistic work of early missionaries in Africa is thus crucial for the correct evaluation of the nineteenth and early twentieth century Christian missionary enterprise.
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Content available FLAVIAN URBANISATION OF AFRICA
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EN
Throughout the last half-century of studies of the Roman North Africa, it has become an established notion in science that the reign of the Flavian dynasty was a decisive turning point in its history, and rightly so. This breakthrough embraced all areas of life, while the nature of the transformation is best reflected by the view that it was only thanks to the Flavians that Africa became fully Roman. What is more, this is accompanied by the well-founded thesis that without the achievements of the Flavians, the great prosperity of the Flavian provinces in the 2nd-3rd centuries would not have been possible: their successors reaped what the Flavians had sowed. Without going into too much detail, one should also recognise the rationality of the postulate to set apart the Flavian period in the history of Roman Africa as an era in its own right.  Embarking on the great task of urbanisation in Africa was the Flavii’s undoubted merit. Their principal effort of was concentrated in the northern part of Africa Proconsularis, on the territory of the former Africa Vetus.  Lepcis Magna in the south of Proconsularis (in Tripolitania) and Icosium in Mauretania Caesariensis were exceptional cases. The newly created cities – colonies and municipia – were to perform an important strategic role, i.e. to protect the territories of Africa Proconsularis against the tribes from the south. The area was urbanised, had considerable economic significance and yielded high profit. Both extensive private latifundia and imperial domains which were to be found there, played an important role in supplying Rome with grain. From the point of view of the state, the changes also contributed to the internal consolidation of the province.   Urbanisation of Africa, besides the introduction of cadastre, institutional forms of imperial cult and forcing nomadic tribes to settled life served that very end.  This involved strictly military reorganisation of the province, which was best manifested in the relocation of the Legio III Augusta to Theveste and then to Lambaesis. The Flavians also embarked on expansion and repairs of the road network. Apart from their important economic and political functions, coloniae veteranorum – Ammaedara and Madauros – as well as the municipia Sufetula and Cillium had the task of guarding the access to the fertile lands of Africa Proconsularis. There is no doubt that the policy of the Flavians was a long-term one, while the actions of Trajan, Hadrian and the Severans represented its direct continuation.
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