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EN
Five sheep were experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). All animals seroconverted to BIV p26 core protein by 6 weeks after inoculation and developed persistent lymphocytosis. Proviral DNA has been continually detected only in one sheep and temporarily present in other two animals. All attempts to rescue the BIV from peripheral blood leukocytes of uninfected sheep have failed during experiment. The established model of bovine lentivirus infection in sheep provides valuable data to examine the pathogenesis of BIV and related retroviral infections.
EN
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle that plays a crucial role in protein quality control such as protein folding. Evidence to indicate the involvement of ER in maintaining cellular homeostasis is increasing. However, when cells are exposed to stressful conditions, which perturb ER function, unfolded proteins accumulate leading to ER stress. Cells then activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to cope with this stressful condition. In the present review, we will discuss and summarize recent advances in research on the basic mechanisms of the UPR. We also discuss the possible involvement of ER stress in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Potential therapeutic opportunities for diseases targeting ER stress is also described.
EN
Simulated maxillary sinusitis was observed in guinea pigs following the surgical incision in superior cervical sympathetic ganglion. Additionally, toxic hepatitis development was stimulated after exposure to tetrachlormethane in experimental animals. The treated and control animals were observed for three months. A significant increase in the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils and lymphocytes was noted in artificially developed sinusitis. The ROS values were slightly higher in the case of combined experimental sinusitis and toxic hepatitis. Based on the obtained data, the role of ROS in the development of sinusitis was discussed.
EN
Introduction. Epilepsy that is associated with neurocutaneous disorders seriously deteriorates quality of life and cognitive outcome of affected children. Recent advances in epilepsy pathophysiology raise hopes for better treatment results in this difficult group of patients. Aim. The aim of this review is to present recent treatment recommendations as well as current research progress in the most frequent neurocutaneous disorders. Material and methods. We analyzed PubMed database to select the most prominent and recent (up to 2014 year) publications on the treatment and mechanisms of epilepsy in selected neurocutaneous disorders. We aimed to emphasize evidence-based medicine recommendations as well as basic experimental studies dealing with molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis. Discussion and conclusions. Recent advances in disease-modifying treatment options such as mTOR inhibitors in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex open up new perspectives for neurologists. Traditional resective surgery has still a major role as a treatment of choice in carefully selected cases.
EN
In this paper we analyze the nascent years of the Polish public sphere during the years before and after the 1905 Revolution. We assert that it was a moment of clash between, on the one hand, the intelligentsia and its de facto bourgeois vision of politics, and on the other a rising proletarian counter-public. The popular unrest initiated a massive upsurge of workers into the process of mass politics. As we argue, this situation shocked the elites, attached to their utopian vision of the Polish people, “enlightened” from above by the intelligentsia. Consequently, their reaction was ambivalent, if not reluctant. The intelligentsia’s attitude was growingly tainted with a conservative fear of the masses, which inhibited the development of plebeian constituencies and forms of political articulation. This posed a cornerstone for the future layering of the public sphere, leading to what we call its pathogenesis. It produced outcomes lasting for years, as well as a general contempt towards democratic demands resulting in the impossibility of collective bargaining about popular economic interests.
EN
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are major components of the outer membrane of Gram-- negative bacteria playing a central role as potent endotoxins in the pathogenesis of endotoxic shock. Although large amounts of endotoxin may produce hemorrhagic lesions in the stomach, the possible gastroprotective effect of central or peripheral LPS against the acute gastric lesions has not been extensively studied. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and parenteral (i.p.) injection of LPS against gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol. Male Wistar rats were treated either with a) vehicle (control); b) E-coli-LPS in various concentrations (1—10 µg/kg i.c.v or 0.1—40 mg/kg i.p.) followed 30 min later by 100% ethanol. The effects of pretreatment with nonselective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME, 20 mg/kg i.g.) or selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, L-NIL (30 mg/kg i.g) on the gastroprotection induced by LPS was investigated. One hour after ethanol application, the gastric blood flow (GBF) and the area of gastric lesions were determined. In addition, the mucosal expression of iNOS, cNOS and leptin was assessed using RT-PCR. LPS applied i.c.v. or i.p. dose dependently reduced gastric lesions induced by ethanol and this effect was similar to that observed after the administration of NO donor (SNAP). LPS-induced protection was significantly abolished by L-NAME and significantly attenuated by the selective inhibitor of iNOS (L-NIL). The expression of cNOS was detected in vehicle treated gastric mucosa and did not change after LPS administration. iNOS was not detectable in intact mucosa but its expression dose-dependently increased after the LPS administration. The i.c.v. administration of LPS did not upregulate further the iNOS expression, and dose-dependently inhibited the leptin mRNA expression in gastric mucosa. We conclude that LPS applied centrally or peripherally protects gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced damage through an increase in gastric microcirculation mediated by NO due to overexpression of iNOS. Transcriptional downregulation of leptin in gastric mucosa is probably due to the increased leptin release induced by the intracerebroventricular application of lipopolysaccharide.
EN
Shigella is one of the most common bacterial pathogens that are isolated from patients with diarrhea. Various attempts are being made worldwide with encouraging observations; still the emergence of multidrug-resistant Shigella strains and a continuous high disease incidence imply that shigellosis is an unsolved global health problem which can probably be solved only by developing a proper vaccine and a vaccine regime for the disease. The need of the hour is to foster the development of an effective vaccine which should not only serve to improve hygiene but also should be able to curb infections by the pathogen. This goal can only be achieved by gaining proper detailed knowledge underlying Shigella pathogenesis. The analyses of the Shigella invasion proteins which have been long been targeted to be potential candidate vaccines remains an open ended problem and forms the core of this present computational study which identifies the fact that long regions in the structure of the proteins are disordered having no distinct structural conformation; multiple alignments however, did not show any conserved stretches in the disordered regions. The results probably explain the ability of these proteins to interact with multiple cellular proteins and perform a diverse array of functions leading to successful pathogenesis.
EN
Lyme disease (LD) is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, transferred by infected ticks Ixodus ricinus. LD occurs endemically in Europe, America and Northern regions of Asia. In Poland, LD is the most frequent tick borne disease, which causes serious epidemiological problems. The main health hazard of LD occurs on the forested areas of Podlasie, Maritime province, the West Poland lake district, and Carpathians. The highest incidence 114.0 per 100 000 was registered in Podlaskie province. The infectious cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi includes: nymph moulds to adult, eggs laid by female, eggs hatch to larva, larva feeds on first host, fully fed larva drops to ground, larva moulds to nymph, nymph attaches to and feeds on the second host. LD is a chronic disease attacking many organs, including the skin, heart, brain and joints. LD is divided into three stages based on clinical symptoms: I - limited infection (Erythema migrans and Borrelia lymphoma), II - disseminated infection (numerous erythema migrans, early neuro-borreliosis, joint inflammation, Lyme carditis), III - late borreliosis (chronic atrophic limbs infla-mmation, late neuroborreliosis, chronic joint infla-mmation). At present, the best diagnostic method for LD is a labor- and time consuming two-stage serological method. First-line antibiotics in the treatment of Lyme disease are doxycycline, amoxicillin, cefuroxime axetil, ceftriaxone, cefo-taxime, and penicillin G. The best method of avoiding Borrelia burgdorferi infection is to avoid biting from ticks carrying spirochetes. Early removal of ticks, protects against spirochaetal infection.
EN
Urolithiasis is a disease of the genitourinary system, which is defined as the presence of urinary stones at any place in the urinary tract, resulting from the precipitation reaction of chemical compounds. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the important role of selected environmental factors (climate, ambient temperature) and the type of profession performed in the development of urolithiasis. In this field, the literature including original and review papers related to the epidemiology, pathogenesis and risk factors of urolithiasis was analyzed. The study used electronic databases such as Medline, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The prevalence of urolithiasis has increased in recent decades in both developed and developing countries. It is believed that this growing trend is associated with lifestyle changes such as the lack of physical activity, poor eating habits and global warming. Many factors are responsible for the formation of urinary stones. In literature, there is a division into individual and environmental factors. Today, external factors in the form of climate changes (global warming), geographical conditions and seasonal fluctuations, and the type of profession performed are becoming more and more important in the context of the occurrence of urinary stones. Currently, the presence of urolithiasis is becoming a significant problem all over the world and searching for causes is not easy, but particular attention should be paid to certain predispositions resulting from environmental factors, such as ambient temperature and the type of work performed. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(6):761–75
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Content available remote Inflammatory bowel disease - Polish contribution
75%
EN
The term "inflammatory bowel disease" includes ulcerative colitis, Lesniowski-Crohn’s disease and indeterminate colitis. The history of these diseases in Poland began with Antoni Lesniowski, who in 1904 described an inflammatory tumour of the small intestine with a fistula to ascending colon. The first contemporary clinical descriptions of the main forms of inflammatory bowel disease emerged after 1960, and were made by Warsaw groups and a surgical group from Poznan. The major contributions of Polish investigators to the development of knowledge about ulcerative colitis and Lesniowski-Crohn’s disease were made in the fields of immunology and genetics and in studies on kallikrein-kinin and haemostasis systems. The investigators of pathogenetic mechanisms in these diseases come from departments of gastroenterology in Warsaw, Lublin, Gdansk and Sosnowiec.
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