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EN
In the present article the author examines the question of restriction of liberty in the light of the amended Criminal Code of 2015. In the new Civil Code restriction of liberty has become a means of a flexible response to a crime, making it possible to shape the severity of this penalty in a variety of ways. The amended provisions of the Criminal Code have considerably expanded the scope of its application, making it possible to impose this penalty not only in the case of petty and medium-severity but also serious offences. Restriction of liberty has become a penalty competing with fines and, above all, with suspended custodial sentence, the application of which, under the new provisions, should be considerably limited.
EN
Introduction. To work safely, knowledge of law is crucial for midwives who should be familiar with the midwife’s rights and duties as well as their professional responsibility. Aim. Assessment of knowledge of midwives about their professional responsibility. Material and methods. A total of 103 MA Midwifery students of the Medical University of Warsaw, including 55 working and 48 not working as midwives. A diagnostic poll, original anonymous questionnaire, 25 close-ended questions, 8 openended questions. Statistical analysis: STATISTICA 10.0, Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.05. Results. Seventy-one percent of the study participants had knowledge of the binding provisions of law and 83% considered this kind of knowledge as necessary in their professional activity. Twenty-four percent of the total did not know any legal regulations. Thirty percent was not familiar with the Nurses and Midwives Act. Only 52% of the study participants were knowledgeable about the legal protection of midwives and indicated the protection established for public officers. Forty-six percent of the total said that the Act on Professional Self-Government of Nurses and Midwives of July 1st, 2011 regulates the issue of self-governance. As many as 30 study participants knew that membership in the self-governing body of midwives is obligatory. Conclusions. Knowledge of nurses about professional responsibility under amended provisions of law is insufficient and does not improve with experience as a midwife. Due to the fact that new acts on professional responsibility of midwives were implemented in Poland beginning in January 1st, 2012, it is advisable to extend qualifications and knowledge of midwives in order to improve their knowledge of professional issues. Midwives should constantly update their knowledge of legal regulations on their profession
EN
The article presents the role of government and non-government organisations in promoting knowledge on Alzheimer's disease in Poland and the European Union. There is a detailed analysis of the EU documents and non-government organisations in promoting knowledge on Alzheimer's disease in Germany, France and Holland. There is a discussion on the National Alzheimer's Plan on the basis of an example of introducing such a plan in Finland. Additionally, the rules of helping people suffering from Alzheimer's disease and their attendants in Poland are presented.
EN
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF STUDY The core of a well-organised healthcare system is respecting patients' rights by healthcare professionals. The study aimed to analyse the knowledge of and attitudes towards patients' rights among healthcare professionals. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 physicians and 100 nurses were enrolled in the study. Specialist physicians constituted 40% of the total, nurses with a secondary school degree represented 30% of all the participants, and nurses with a Bachelor's degree accounted for 25% of the total. The mean age was 40 years old (min. 24, max. 64, SD: 9.390), and the mean length of service of the respondents was 15 years (min. 1, max. 44, SD: 10.569, median: 13). A diagnostic survey was conducted between November 2012 and January 2013 by means of a voluntary and anonymous questionnaire developed by the authors, consisting of 46 questions. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was performed with Statsoft STATISTICA 10.0, as well as the Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05. RESULTS As many as 34% of the physicians and nurses assessed their knowledge of patients' rights as good (p < 0.011). 19% of the physicians and 7% of the nurses assessed their knowledge as very good. 85% of the study partici-pants knew the right to information, right to access medical records, and right to health services (p = NS). 78% of the respondents were familiar with the Act on Patients' Rights and Ombudsman for Patients' Rights. 64% of the total confirmed that they had witnessed the infringement of patients' rights at their workplace. CONCLUSIONS 1. The knowledge of the study participants concerning patients' rights was insufficient. Therefore, a system of training for medical personnel in this field needs to be developed and introduced. 2. Healthcare professionals play a minor role in providing patients with information on their rights. Hence, medical personnel should have an opportunity to acquire knowledge, skills and competence in this area. 3. Due to the fact that a majority of the respondents witnessed the infringement of patients' rights, the observance of patients' rights by healthcare professionals needs to be monitored and those who infringe patients' rights should be held professionally responsible.
PL
WSTĘP I CEL PRACY Respektowanie praw pacjenta przez personel medyczny jest podstawą prawidłowo funkcjonującej służby zdrowia. Celem pracy była analiza wiedzy i postaw personelu medycznego wobec praw przysługujących pacjentom. MATERIAŁ I METODY W badaniu uczestniczyło 100 lekarzy (40% specjalistów) i 100 pielęgniarek (30% z wykształceniem średnim, 25% z licencjackim). Średnia wieku: 40 lat (min. 24, maks. 64, SD: 9), średni staż pracy: 15 lat (min. 1, max. 44, SD: 10; mediana: 13). W pracy zastosowano takie metody, jak: sondaż diagnostyczny, dobrowolne, anonimowe badania ankietowe, samodzielnie skonstruowany kwestionariusz, 46 pytań. Analizę ilościową i jakościową przeprowadzono za pomocą programu Statsoft STATISTICA 10.0 oraz testu U Manna-Whitneya, p < 0,05. WYNIKI Swoją wiedzę na temat praw pacjenta bardzo dobrze oceniło 19% lekarzy i 7% pielęgniarek, zaś dobrze: 34% lekarzy i pielęgniarek (p < 0,011). Prawo do informacji, wglądu w dokumentację medyczną oraz prawo do świadczeń zdrowotnych znało 85% badanych (p = NS). Z ustawą o prawach pacjenta i Rzeczniku Praw Pacjenta zapoznało się 78% badanych, 64% potwierdziło, że było świadkiem łamania praw pacjenta w miejscu pracy. WNIOSKI 1. Wiedza badanych na temat praw pacjenta była niewystarczająca, dlatego należy opracować i wdrożyć system szkoleń dla personelu medycznego w tym zakresie. 2. Rola personelu medycznego w przekazywaniu informacji o przysługujących pacjentom prawach jest znikoma, dlatego należy umożliwić personelowi nabywanie wiedzy, umiejętności i kompetencji w tym zakresie. 3. Większość badanych była świadkami łamania praw pacjenta, dlatego należy monitorować respektowanie praw pacjenta przez personel medyczny i pociągać do odpowiedzialności zawodowej tych, którzy ich nie przestrzegają.
EN
Introduction. Initially, a transplant coordinator assisted in the process of removal and transplantation of organs. The most important rule in the Polish legislation is the Act of July 17th, 2009, amending the Act on removal, preservation, and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs. Professional qualifications of a transplant coordinator are specified by the Regulation of the Minister of Health of December 4th, 2009 on detailed conditions of removal, preservation, and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs. Aim. The study aimed to assess the knowledge of medical personnel about the function of a transplant coordinator with reference to the current Polish legislation. Material and methods. The study was conducted in April 2013 among 100 selected health professionals (25 physicians, 62 nurses, and 13 persons representing other medical professions) with the use of a questionnaire comprising 42 close-ended simple choice questions and one multiple-choice question. They were referring to various aspects associated with the legal axiology of transplantation, procedure of organ donation, and tasks of a donation coordinator, as well as one open-ended question about the age of respondents. Results. Statistically significant differences between the occupational groups were found in relation to questions about legal and medical aspects. As many as 21 nurses (34%), 26 physicians (92%), and 6 persons representing other medical professions (46%) (p<0.000) provided the correct answer to a question referring to determination of death, and 19 nurses (31%), 7 physicians (28%), and 5 persons representing other medical professions (p<0.021) answered correctly to a question about the key premise to determine brain death. Conclusions. 1. The knowledge of medical personnel about the function of a transplant coordinator and the legal provisions concerning brain death determination needs to be supplemented. 2. There is a need of constantly supplementing knowledge of medical personnel about the clinical aspects of transplantation
EN
Background Job satisfaction is one of the key factors related to the work efficiency of nursing staff. Its level may affect the degree of the professional’s commitment to work and effectiveness in performing their professional tasks. For a modern organisation, job satisfaction is associated with a number of benefits for both the employee and the employer. Job satisfaction of nurses is extremely important due to their professional tasks being related to the care of patients. Nurses with low levels of job satisfaction may have less capabilities to provide high quality care and thus maintain a high level of patient satisfaction. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study which included 302 people practising the profession of a nurse and employed in a hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. The level of job satisfaction was assessed using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), which was preceded by questions characterising the research group. The questionnaire was delivered to the respondents in electronic form. Results The respondents obtained an average result in terms of the level of job satisfaction (M±SD 58.53±11.42). The highest rated area was the chance to do something good for other people (M±SD 3.85±0.87), and the lowest rated areas included: the method of work evaluation and the remuneration system (M±SD 2.24±0.74), the chances for advancement (M±SD 2.38±0.94) and the chance to take up senior positions (M±SD 2.39±0.88) as well as the number of tasks to be performed during the working day (M±SD 2.40±0.86). Conclusions In this study, average values of the level of job satisfaction were obtained. A higher level of job satisfaction was shown by those employed in a non-infectious hospital and those with higher monthly earnings. Employers’ policy should focus on improving working conditions, the remuneration system and promotion opportunities.
EN
Introduction. As these define the status of the patient during the provision of health services, patients' rights are a very important component of Poland's medical law. The observance of these rights is a prerequisite for the proper performance of the nursing profession. Theoretical and practical preparation in this area is thus already a necessity in the students' education process. Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the opinions and attitudes of nursing students with respect to problems in the field of the observance of the rights of patients in Poland. Material and methods. The study was built upon the opinions expressed by 375 students (362 women and 13 men) of the first and second year. These were full-time and part-time students in master's studies in nursing, of the Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw. The study employed a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the content of essays. Results. The results of the study indicate that 59 percent of the respondents report being frequent witnesses of violation of patient's rights. In particular, that which noted were the rights to privacy and dignity (98%), to receive sought-after information (91%) and to suitable health-care (85%). Another right seen to have been violated in the respondents' workplace was the patient's right to the maintenance of the confidentiality of patient-related information by medical personnel (77%). The respondents, while seeing violation of the patient's rights by other employees, declared their own adherence to these rights in their own professional practice. Conclusions. 1. The majority of the study group repeatedly witnessed violation of patients' rights. It would, therefore, be advisable to monitor the observance of the rights of patients by medical personnel, and to see to the professional liability of those who flagrantly breaking the law. 2. Research findings indicate that ethics should be given more emphasis in teaching future health professionals in the course of their medical studies. 3. The analysis of the available literature and our own study show that the share of medical personnel in providing information about the patients' rights is minimal. It would be advisable for medical personnel to be given an opportunity to acquire new skills and competences in this field. 4. Awareness of the existence and knowledge of the patient's rights, not only among medical students and health professionals, but also among patients, is crucial to their observance by the former and their exercise by the latter. It should, therefore, be spread and raised. 5. Training and thematic courses in patient's rights should be provided in order to enable medical personnel to acquire new skills and competences in this field, with the end result of improving their observance of patient's rights. 6. A qualitative analysis constitutes an innovative and effective way of carrying out research and interpreting research findings, being a valuable and reasonable method of conducting a survey, and in exploring the attitudes of students and health-care workers towards patient's rights.
PL
StreszczenieWstępUdar mózgu charakteryzuje się pojawieniem ogniskowych lub uogólnionych zaburzeń pracy mózgu na skutek przyczyn wyłącznienaczyniowych, trwających dłużej niż 24 godziny. Głównymi objawami klinicznymi udaru jest deficyt ruchowy i czuciowy orazzaburzenie widzenia i świadomości.Cel pracyOkreślenie problemów pielęgnacyjnych występujących po udarze niedokrwiennym mózgu, ze szczególnym zwróceniem uwagi nadziałania pielęgnacyjne podejmowane w środowisku domowym.Prezentacja przypadkuPrzedstawiono studium indywidualnego przypadku 80-letniej pacjentki po udarze niedokrwiennym mózgu, przebywającej w środowiskudomowym. Przeprowadzono wywiad środowiskowy z mężem podopiecznej.DyskusjaPacjentka wymaga pomocy przy wykonywaniu wszystkich czynności życiowych; wyłoniono 11 problemów pielęgnacyjnych i zaproponowanosposoby ich rozwiązania.WnioskiSzybkie rozpoznanie pierwszych symptomów, niezwłoczne powiadomienie służb ratownictwa medycznego to postępowanie rokująceskuteczność leczenia niedokrwiennego udaru mózgu.Słowa kluczowe: udar mózgu, pacjent, opieka domowa.
PL
StreszczenieWstępW sektorze opieki długoterminowej obserwuje się funkcjonowanie zespołów terapeutycznych znacznie częściej, niż w innychdziedzinach medycyny.Cel pracyAnaliza funkcjonowania zespołu terapeutycznego w codziennej pracy w zakładzie opiekuńczo–leczniczym.Materiał i metodyBadanie przeprowadzono w czterech stacjonarnych zakładach opieki długoterminowej na terenie woj. mazowieckiego. Badaniemobjęto pracowników zatrudnionych w tych placówkach. Uzyskano 100 wypełnionych kwestionariuszy. W badaniu wykorzystanoautorski kwestionariusz ankiety, który zawierał 28 pytań zamkniętych.WynikiSkład zespołu terapeutycznego: pielęgniarka (43%), opiekunka medyczna (19%), rehabilitant, terapeuta zajęciowy (po 11%), lekarz(7%), pracownik socjalny (4%) inni przedstawiciele, np. psycholog, ksiądz, logopeda, dietetyk stanowią 5%. Członkowiezespołu w 69% spotykają się codziennie. Najczęstsze formy współpracy to wspólna realizacja zadań (35%) oraz konsultowanieproblemów (33%). Członkowie rodziny w 40% należą do zespołu terapeutycznego opieki długoterminowej.WnioskiWspółpraca pomiędzy członkami zespołu terapeutycznego najczęściej oceniana jest dobrze; rodzina najczęściej nie przynależy dozespołu terapeutycznego.Słowa kluczowe: opieka długoterminowa, pacjent, zespół terapeutyczny
PL
Wstęp W wielu polskich szpitalach mało uwagi poświęca się budowaniu pozytywnego środowiska pracy. Podobnie jak w przypadku innych zawodów w Polsce w miejscu pracy pielęgniarki często brakuje podstawowego wyposażenia, urządzeń i narzędzi niezbędnych do bezpiecznego wykonywania obowiązków zawodowych. Ponadto często nie są przestrzegane standardy przeprowadzania rekrutacji i utrzymania pracowników. Celem niniejszego badania była ocena środowiska pracy pielęgniarek w Polsce z wykorzystaniem koncepcji pozytywnego środowiska pracy (positive practice environments – PPE) i porównanie wyników z uzyskanymi w Wielkiej Brytanii w 2005 r. Materiał i metody Badanie przeprowadzono w latach 2008–2011 wśród 1049 studentów pielęgniarstwa 3 losowo wybranych publicznych uczelni medycznych, realizujących edukację pielęgniarek na poziomie studiów magisterskich. Wszystkie osoby zakwalifikowane do grupy badanej praktykowały jako pielęgniarki i/lub położne. Koordynatorem projektu było Polskie Towarzystwo Pielęgniarskie, które dostosowało kwestionariusz do polskich warunków po uzyskaniu prawa do jego przetłumaczenia. Do analizy włączono wyniki oceny środowiska pracy pielęgniarek i satysfakcji z niego w Polsce i Wielkiej Brytanii. Wyniki Jako niezadowalający dla ponad 50% pielęgniarek zidentyfikowano dostęp do 8 udogodnień w miejscu pracy, określanych jako atrybuty pozytywnego środowiska pracy. Wnioski Większość badanych pielęgniarek nie była zadowolona z warunków środowiska pracy. Pielęgniarki-menadżerki powinny organizować pozytywne warunki pracy określone w PPE, ponieważ są one warunkiem satysfakcji pielęgniarek z pracy i zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa pacjentów. Med. Pr. 2016;67(1):11–19
EN
Background At many Polish hospitals, insufficient attention is given to positive work environment. In many cases nurses, similarly to the representatives of other professional groups, are not provided with facilities or tools to perform their professional tasks in safe conditions. The aspects of recruitment and retention of employees are often ignored. The aim of this study has been to assess the chosen determinants of work environment of nurses in Poland using the concept of the Positive Practice Environments (PPE). Material and Methods The survey was carried out from 2008 to 2011 among 1049 nursing students of 3 randomly selected public medical universities that provided nursing education at the graduate level of the Master of Science. All the people qualified for the study group were practising nurses or midwives. The Polish Nursing Association coordinated the project, obtained the tool, translated it and adjusted it to the Polish conditions. The areas covered in the survey were: a place of employment, selected physical and social elements influencing the work conditions, and biographical information. Results Access to as many as 8 factors identified as attributes of friendly environments was found unsatisfactory by over 50% of the nurses. For the purpose of objective assessment, the results were compared with the results obtained in the group of nurses in England. Conclusions The majority of the surveyed nurses were not satisfied with their work environments. Polish nurse managers should ensure that aspects of recognized attributes of friendly, positive practice environments for nurses are established to support nurses’ satisfaction as a pre-condition for patients’ safety. Med Pr 2016;67(1):11–19
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