The article reveals spiritual values, historical-pedagogical, scientific-theoretical, methodological foundations of Cossack-knight education and proves the specifics and nature of contemporary youth upbringing on the Cossack principles. As the result of the analysis of historical and pedagogical experience of Ukrainian Cossacks the major ideas, values of Cossack pedagogy, which constitute the core of personality’s spirituality are suggested, namely: love for God, devotion to Ukraine, native people, willingness and ability to fight for its freedom and national interests; systematic improvement of body and soul, self-development and self-realization of all physical, mental and spiritual forces; upbringing of deep respect for the ethnic ancestors, gratitude to them for sacrificial struggle with the enemies of Ukraine; mastering the ability to be the holder of position, owner of native land formation of the self and the other senses of honor, nobility, and other knightly virtues, state-creating qualities; bringing up in each individual national dignity and pride, national consciousness and self-awareness; willingness to respect the representatives of other nations; introduction of the national government, the democratic foundations of Ukrainian Cossack way of life; ability to perform the duties for Ukraine, harmonious combination of personal and national needs and interests, readiness to sacrifice in the name of the victory of Ukrainian ideals; faithfulness to freedom-loving commandments of fighters for freedom of Ukraine, high knightly qualities of Ukrainian person of Shevchenko type; willingness to fight anti-Ukrainian, anti-state phenomena in life, to implement the Ukrainian national ideology, Cossack philosophy, knight morality. It is concluded that Cossack pedagogy, its cultural and national sense, ideological and moral values are fully reflected in national psychology, character, philosophy, and other components of the consciousness of our people. In Ukrainian system of education and upbringing were put leading ideas of national liberation of the Cossack movement, foundations of social life, which required the development of economy, culture, education and upbringing. It should be noted an important trait of the Cossack pedagogy – the ability to develop sensation, perception, imagination, intuition, subconscious – all that belongs to a perfect sphere of personality. The education of today's youth on the Cossack principles will promote the highest development of patriotism, self-realization of youth and the desire to protect their family and homeland.