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EN
A standard indicator for the amount of wages is the average value, i.e., the arithmetic mean. The average wages are regularly published as one of the economic quantities in which all employees are interested. As a matter of course it is often said that about two-thirds of employees do not achieve the average value of wages. One of the reasons for this fact may be the existence of high wages – that is, wages substantially higher than most of the others. We will see in this paper that, even if there are not many such wages, they may have a strong effect on the average value. Our calculations will show this effect on particular data. We will exclude the high wages from the complete set and recalculate the average values after such exclusions. We will also study the proportion of the high wages in the quantity and amount of all wages. We will also be interested in the value of the median and how this value is changed by excluding the high wages. Another observation is that the high wages and their effects on the average values is predominantly a domain of men – this influence is much smaller for women.
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Content available remote KOHORTNÍ ZMĚNY V KONCENTRACI PLODNOSTI V ČESKU A NA SLOVENSKU
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EN
The main objective of this study is interested primarily in the inter-individual diversity in fertility according to the parity distribution of women reproduction in Czech Republic and Slovakia. The authors identify a sharp decline in the concentration of reproduction during the 20th century at very low levels. It was primarily the result of a very low childlessness with combination of significant domination of the two-child family model. This trend has reversed for the most recent cohorts. It appears that this development mainly triggered by pluralization of reproductive behaviour. The youngest cohort tends to increase childlessness as well as increase the proportion of women with only one child. The growing concentration of reproduction suggests that future society in Czech Republic and Slovakia should not simply focus on “average” women (or mother) but should take into an account a wide spectrum of orientations and life strategies.
3
Content available remote Jak fungují kraje – příspěvek k hodnocení výkonu krajských vlád
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EN
The article presents an analysis of the performance of regional governments - the institutions representing the self-governing regions in the Czech Republic. The authors try to answer the question of whether regional governments function similarly or whether they vary in terms of performance, and if they do vary, how structured and how large are these differences. After a review of the position occupied by the regions in the Czech public administration system, and after assessing the ways in which regional government performance can be understood and measured and the accessibility of necessary data, indicators are proposed and used to create an aggregate index of regional government performance. An analysis based on these indicators shows that there are considerable differences between regional governments in terms of the structure and the level of their performance. Based on the performance index it was possible to distinguish regions with above-average, average, and below-average regional government performance. The territorial distribution of these groups and some other factors confirm the validity of these measurements.
4
Content available remote České kulturně-historické regiony ve vědomí svých obyvatel
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EN
The Czech Republic is comprised of different regions at the sub-national level. These are the historical lands of Bohemia, Moravia, and (part of) Silesia, small ethnographic regions, and administrative units. Their objective hierarchy derives from their former historical role, from their administrative function today, and their regional importance. In this article the authors attempt to describe the subjective hierarchy of these regions in the minds of their inhabitants, drawing on a survey of 1203 respondents from throughout the Czech Republic conducted in 2003 by the Centre for Public Opinion Research. The historical lands of Bohemia and Moravia are two regions whose existence Czechs recognise without question, while Silesia is in a weaker position and garners only two-thirds of the level of recognition accorded the other two historical lands. The cultural or ethnographic regions and the administrative units are on an approximately equal level, which is distinctively lower than that of the three Czech historical lands. More of these small regions are located in Moravia than in Bohemia or Silesia. The best known Czech regions are: Wallachia, Moravian Slovakia, Hana (all of which are in Moravia) and the Region of Khods (Bohemia). The best known region that is neither ethnographical nor one of the administrative units is the former industrial region
EN
In reaction to central control of schooling by the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic countered with what some say was the most decentralized system in Europe. While the political move to democracy was extraordinarily successful, there were numerous governments between 1989 and the present. The combination of the decentralized control of schooling and lack of continuity in the political realm in regard to education lengthened substantially the amount of time it has taken to mount national assessments. Those assessments, 5th and 9th grade and a high school leaving examination, are now on track but not without political and technical barriers.
EN
The article characterizes the situation of Churches and religious associations in the Czech Republic and Slovakia after 1989. Along with the onset of transformations of the political system, previously marginalized and persecuted religious associations obtained the possibility of a free development and independence from state authorities, while their members were guaranteed religious liberties. Following the division of the Czechoslovak state into two independent republics - Czech and Slovak - Churches and religious associations have enjoyed freedom, conditions have also been created for development of their activity, religious as well as charitable, cultural, educational, etc. Appropriate legal regulations have also been introduced. However, many problems still remain unsolved, above all the problem of financing the Churches, and in the case of the Czech Republic also the restitution of Church property and the concordate. The situation of religious associations in those countries is also influenced by a change of attitudes toward religion. The highly secularized Czech society shows a well-advanced indifference to religious matters, whereas in Slovakia the Church enjoys social trust and believers make up a large section of the society.
EN
The aim of the study is to identify the transition of men to first birth in the Czech Republic focusing particularly on the impact of the level of education. Two different time periods characterised by differing political and societal orders are subjected to study – the period of state socialism from 1960 to 1989 and the transition and post-transition period from 1990 to 2008. We employ data obtained from the Czech Generations and Gender Survey (2008) and the event history modelling method. The impact of education is studied in terms of the interaction thereof with various other characteristics of the individual. The analysis revealed that reproductive behaviour differs depending on the educational level with respect to differing subgroups as defined by e.g. partnership status or the composition of the family of orientation. The study aims to extend the debate on the influence of education on fertility by introducing the aspect of male reproduction behaviour.
8
Content available remote Česká sociologie, empirický výzkum a zdroje dat
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EN
The text has two parts. The first part attempts to give a broader overview of empirical sociological research in the Czech Republic on the basis of available data from project databases. The main producers of empirical research in the Czech Republic and the thematic focus of this research are then analyzed. In the second part of the article the access to the already available data sources is described, especially to those data files that are stored in the Sociological Data Archive. Important international surveys, which took place also in the Czech Republic and access to data files from this projects is then presented.
EN
The aim of this study is to explain why turnout in Czech general elections exhibited considerable variation between 1996 and 2010. Using valence theory this article explores the differential turnout in terms of the expected benefits of voting for a party on the basis of valence and policy considerations. This individual-level analysis of electoral participation employs four post-election surveys and uses an alternative operationalisation of the expected benefi ts of voting, which makes it possible to conduct cross-national and cross-time comparisons. The results presented in the article demonstrate that change in voter turnout across general elections stems from the change in the expected benefits from voting aggregated at the level of the electorate. One key implication of this research is that attempts to facilitate increased electoral participation through institutional reform are unlikely to be successful. This is because turnout is primarily determined by voter motivation. Increased turnout depends critically on ensuring a level of party choice that gives voters an incentive to go the polls.
EN
In the autumn of 2001, the author conducted a rather extensive sociological survey in the Czech Republic concerning preferences in music and musical activities. A representative sample of the population, aged between 18 and 75, included more than 1 000 people. The survey Explorer broader contexts of musical consumption as well. A set of questions concerning the relationship of the subjects to social groups defined by nationality and race, and attitudes to violence or sexual orientation, served as indicators of broader cultural values. The exploration of relationships among musical and extra-musical characteristics resulted in constructing a slightly Adornian typology of listeners to music including following types: Brass & Country, Pop Only, Soft Rock, Easy Listening, Hard Core, Classical Tradition, and Love for Everything.
11
Content available remote THE CZECH ECONOMIC ELITE AFTER FIFTEEN YEARS OF POST-SOCIALIST TRANSFORMATION
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EN
The East-Central European post-socialist transformations have now reached a new stage, with the need to address the problems of further modernisation and maintenance in the context of the EU. The role of elites in this process is as intermediators between the influence of the European context and the needs and interests of differentiated internal social structures. Their attitudes and behaviour exhibit a high degree of internal fragmentation and division corresponding to various strategical orientations favouring various societal models. The post-socialist Czech economic elite was initially reproduced out of former state socialist managers and their cadre reserves. After the first phase of economic developments, inspired by neo-liberal radical privatisation and elements of 'shock therapy', and once the new, more European phase ushered in many new factors, there was a distinct decline in the number of 'old-new' economic elite on the scene. In the empirical part of the article the results of several surveys are used to briefly describe the changes in the composition of the Czech economic elite in the 1994-2005 period and to summarise their attitudes and behaviour. The analysis concludes that the current image of a liberal and pro-European Czech elite is consistent with the stable and remarkable progress of the Czech economy since 1999, the considerable wealth, strong profits, and high salaries enjoyed by top elites, and the enhancement of their role in the European economy. There are also some limitations and weak points that diverge from this general picture. The article's conclusions touch on the question of the role of the economic elite in the progress of arriving at more consensual attitudes and behaviour among societal elites as a whole, favouring further economic growth, modernisation and the strengthening of social cohesion in the context of the EU.
EN
Other than financial and non-financial effects for universities, academic entrepreneurship also generates new thoughts and ideas and allows for transfer of knowledge, leading to creation of inventions and innovations. Thanks to this, academic entrepreneurship represents a source of economic growth and competitiveness and contributes significantly towards sustainable development. This role appears to be especially important from the point of view of post-communist economies which are still to a certain extent transforming. The objective in this study is therefore to assess the level of academic entrepreneurship in one of the post-communist countries – a small economy with a traditional role played by education – the Czech Republic. Data gained via a questionnaire survey, the respondents of which were competent managers from 76 HEIs and faculties working in the Czech Republic, was compared with the relevant international studies.
EN
Chapbooks as a very specific genre of printed materials are a unique type of a society‘s material memory, one that is currently under threat due both to its physical medium and its ephemeral nature and bibliographic uniqueness. The Institute of Ethnology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, as one of the bodies tasked with the preservation of the nation‘s cultural heritage in the area of popular culture, has undertaken to process and make publicly available its collection of chapbooks by first publishing them as books and then by digitizing them and cataloguing them in a publicly accessible online database using the MARC 21 format.
EN
The article deals with courtship from the perspective of communication. It focuses on the meanings and forms with which the cultural memory is reflected and reinforced by specific rules of courtship in the context of social regulation. It tracks changes in courtship by comparing the constitutive signals and found the traditional model with its current conceptualization. It is based on the results of research done in 2006-2007 among secondary-school students ages 15-19 from the schools in Prague and the village schools of selected regions of Moravia.
EN
The article focuses on a previously neglected public procurement research field regarding competitive effects on public service contracts. Current studies analysing the competitive effect primarily focus on the examination of public works contracts, or on examining the competitive effect of public procurement as a heterogeneous whole. The subject of this examination is a separate analysis of public service contracts. Below and above-threshold public service contracts awarded in the Czech Republic in 2014 were examined. The results of the examination of its own sample of 790 public contracts in open procedure show that, with each additional tenderer, the average price drops by 3.04%. This finding is in line with the studies that have dealt with the examination of the competitive effect in public procurement for public works contracts. The analysis also indicates a stronger existence of a competitive effect in open procedure types compared to other procedure types. The report also highlights some of the phenomena that may affect the resulting public contract price, where the higher final price does not necessarily mean inefficiency nor overpricing of the public contract (such as the difficulties with the anticipated price for IT service contracts).
16
Content available remote RELIGIOSITY BEHIND BARS: FORMS OF INMATE'S RELIGIOSITY IN THE CZECH PRISON SYSTEM
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EN
The text focuses on the multiple forms of religiosity (based on different types of motivation) of inmates in Czech prisons from the perspective of three groups of respondents: prison inmates, prison guards and representatives of a number of churches. The study is based on an ethnographic study of prisons in the Czech Republic. The data corpus includes qualitative interviews with selected actors in the prison world, material gathered through observations inside prisons and an analysis of the documentation on the Czech penitentiary system. Through this research, we found that the key respondents feel that there is some ambivalence around the religiosity of inmates and that the pragmatic approach many inmates take to faith is becoming a controversial issue. Our research demonstrated that the presence of religiosity of inmates in prison is not really accepted in a clearly positive manner as it may seem at first glance. On the contrary, the presence of it in prisons has become the subject of controversy among its main actors.
17
Content available remote NEZAMĚSTNANOST ŽENY JAKO PŘÍČINA DEKLAROVANÉHO ODKLADU ZALOŽENÍ RODINY?
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Sociológia (Sociology)
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2020
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tom 52
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nr 2
132 – 152
EN
The aim of this study is to identify the effect of personal unemployment experience before the first childbirth on its timing. The data from the Women 2016 survey and the Czech Generation and Gender Survey 2008 includes 1212 respondents. There are two types of personal experience of unemployment which negatively impact fertility timing. These are job loss (the direct transition from employed to unemployed status) and worse economic conditions on a macro level (in this study it is represented by the period after the beginning of financial crisis in 2008).
18
Content available remote Empirický výzkum chudoby v českých zemích ve třech historických obdobích
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EN
This article deals with empirical research on poverty in Czechoslovakia from the interwar period to the present in terms of three distinct phases. First, between 1918 and 1948, considerable attention was devoted to poverty, but research possibilities modest, so that a complex mapping of the problem was not feasible. Second, during the 1948 to 1989 period, the communist regime allowed “examinations” of poverty for the purpose of depicting pre-war capitalist Czechoslovakia as an impoverished, class-divided society. A similar approach was applied to studies of Western countries during the Cold War period. Research on poverty within the socialist regime was not allowed, even after the rehabilitation of sociology as a social science. Detailed analysis of household surveys was either forbidden or the results were embargoed; only simple cross-tabulations were ever published. Third, after 1989, the opportunities for undertaking research on poverty increased dramatically due to stimulus in both the national and international arenas. Important projects were fielded leading to many studies and published articles. Statistical surveys were used to map poverty primarily in terms of income; while sociological, ethnographic and anthropological approaches were used to examine key groups affected by poverty in Czech society. Within the literature there has been to date no synthesis of the study of the nature and origins of poverty in the Czech Republic.
19
Content available remote Religiozita Cikánů v ČR: Konceptuálně-metodologické poznámky
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EN
The goal of the text is to sum up the existing works on religion and religiosity of the Gypsies in the Czech Republic and, to a certain extent, also in the Slovak Republic. We summarize the tendencies to be found in the academic texts on this topic and propose the positive way for the future studies and texts, which consists in the clear definition of the subject matter, and explicit use of the conceptual tools and theories.
EN
We analyse the memory of voters and their ability to recall campaigns of candidates after the first-ever direct Czech presidential election. Our main focus is on identifying the campaigns best remembered by the voters. Our results show that, as predicted by the theory, the respondents could recall campaigns of the personalities that they had voted for. On the other hand, we do not confirm that people also remembered the campaigns of the candidates that they considered voting for.
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