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Content available remote Popular Perceptions of Actual and Just Earnings: A Questionnaire Experiment
In social surveys, questions are often asked as to what subjects think people in various occupations actually earn and what they think these people should earn. Responses to these questions figure prominently in sociological studies on legitimacy of inequality and perceptions of justice. In the present study, responses to these questions are employed as well, but the major focus is on investigating the effects, if any, the way these questions are asked affects estimates of actual and just earnings provided by the subjects. More specifically, two hypotheses are proposed, the first of which concerns the association between actual and just earnings, as perceived by subjects, as a measure of legitimacy. It is argued that changing the order in which questions about the earnings are asked affects the strength of this association. A substantive justification for this hypothesis borrows from reward expectation theory and its concept of referential structures. The second hypothesis deals with between-subject agreement in the evaluations of just earnings and it proposes that the agreement may appear weaker or stronger depending on how the occupations to be evaluated by subjects have been selected. This hypothesis builds on expectations states theory, in particular, on status-processing principles in status-inconsistent situations.
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest porównanie dwóch miar zaufania uogólnionego wykorzystanych w dwóch badaniach sondażowych zrealizowanych w Polsce w 2008 roku na ogólnokrajowych próbach losowych, a mianowicie Europejskim Sondażu Społecznym i Polskim Generalnym Sondażu Społecznym. Istotna różnica między tymi miarami polega na tym, że jedna z nich (tzw. standardowa skala zaufania) opiera się na przeciwstawieniu zaufania ostrożności w kontaktach z nieznajomymi, natomiast druga oba te pojęcia starannie oddziela od siebie. Jeśli ostrożność faktycznie jest przeciwieństwem zaufania uogólnionego, obie miary powinny dać zbliżone rezultaty. Różnice między wynikami obu pomiarów będą natomiast świadczyć o tym, że oba narzędzia mierzą różne cechy ukryte. Odwołując się do danych z przywołanych badań na różnych przykładach pokazuję, iż (a) zaufanie i ostrożność w kontaktach z innymi stanowią odrębne konstrukty, (b) mieszkańcy Polski są bardziej ostrożni niż ufni w relacjach z nieznajomymi, (c) miara, która opiera się na przeciwstawieniu zaufania i ostrożności może zaniżać faktyczny poziom zaufania uogólnionego w Polsce.
The purpose of the present paper is to compare two measures of generalised trust used in two surveys carried out in Poland in 2008 on nationwide random samples, namely, the European Social Survey and the Polish General Social Survey. An important difference between the measures is that one of them (i.e., the standard trust scale) treats trust and prudence in dealing with strangers as opposite extremes of the same continuum, while the other is based on the assumption that they are separate concepts. If prudence is actually the opposite of generalised trust, both measures should give similar results. Any differences in the results given by these tools will, however, indicate that they measure different constructs. Using the data from the above-mentioned studies I show, on the basis of various examples, that (a) trust and prudence are indeed separate constructs (b) Polish respondents are more cautious than trusting when dealing with strangers, (c) the standard trust scale, which is based on the opposition of trust and prudence, may understate the actual level of generalised trust in Poland.
Compared with the monometallic palladium, bimetallic Pd-Au/SiO2 catalysts show much higher activity and better stability in the reaction of hydrodechlorination of tetrachloromethane, also providing higher selectivity to longer than methane hydrocarbon products. Reasonably mixed Pd-Au particles show better catalytic performance during ~60 h operation, whereas the monometallic palladium and very rich in palladium catalysts suffer rapid deactivation. Smaller amounts of carbon- and chlorine-containing deposits found after reaction on Pd-Au catalysts correspond to their superior catalytic behavior.
Two silica-supported palladium based catalysts characterized by overall metal loadings 10 wt.%, and atomic Pd : Ag ratios of 100 : 0 and 70 : 30, were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation, subjected to reduction in hydrogen and characterized by XRD. It was found that incipient wetness co-impregnation of silica resulted in the formation of a catalyst characterized by relatively small metal crystallites (~11 nm) and significant extent of Pd-Ag alloying. The catalytic performance was investigated in the hydrodechlorination of tetrachloromethane in the gas phase. Silver addition to palladium in the co-impregnated catalysts had very pronounced effect, vastly decreasing the overall activity (conversion) and also the selectivity towards hydrocarbons, propensity characteristic for the monometallic palladium catalysts working in CCl4 hydrodechlorination carried out in the gas phase. Instead, large amounts of C2HxCly dimeric products were formed. These dimers are considered as possible coke precursors. Post-reaction samples of both catalysts contained large amount of carbon which entered the Pd and Pd-Ag phases. This carbon can be easily removed by treatment with hydrogen at 450ºC.
Content available remote Social Stratification and Eating
Patterns of eating, as an element of lifestyle and consumption, constitute a major research area in the social and health sciences. The study of eating patterns focus on what pe ople eat, whether they eat alone or in company, where they eat, how often, and under what circumstances. For decades, research on eating within sociology had been somewhat neglected, but in recent years there has been an explosion of interest in this topic. In Poland, however, social scientific inquiry into practical, social, and cultural aspects of food has been minimal. Using data from a nation-wide survey carried out in 2013 and in-depth interview with 60 respondents conducted in 2014, we attempted to answer two questions: (i) to what extent eating patterns reflect existing inequalities and stratification, and (ii) to what extent they have been affected by globalisation and Western lifestyle. This article discusses theoretical background of our research, its empirical basis, and summarises the basic results.
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