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2012
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tom 17
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nr 4
45–62
EN
Whether and when children can apply their developing understanding of belief to persuasion was examined using picture stories tasks. Children created or selected arguments to persuade a parent. In 2 studies, 253 children (aged 4–8 years) engaged in persuasion tasks and in first and second order false-belief reasoning tasks. The belief-relevant argument increased with age. The understanding of false beliefs proved to be a predictor of the ability to refer to the cognitive perspective of others in creating and selecting a persuasive argument. The results suggest that improvements in belief reasoning in early and middle childhood may be refl ected in social interactions such as persuasion.
EN
The aniele presents linguistic strategies of persuasive influence in youth magazines. Persuasive methods employed by teenage magazi les are based on social influence mechanisms. Their form and course were adapted to the specifics of communication in the press medium and to the characteristics of the target reader. These magazines use the rules of social influence, which are the most effective tools o f persuasion, the presence of which the teenager will neither ąuestion nor reject. These methods avoid direct pressure, using willingly morę subtle persuasive mechani >ms. They work via the rule of authority, the rule of social proof, the rule o f scarcty combined with the rule o f liking, thanks to which the methods address the teenager’s needs, transferring those attitudes, opinions and value Systems, which are to be imprinted and accepted.
3
Content available Metafora w dyskursie politycznym
94%
PL
Metaphor is not infrequently madę use of in political discourse as a suggestive means of expressing a meaning and communicating assessments, that is, as an instrument of persu- asion rendering it possible to shape the recipients’ views, opinions and behaviours from the standpoint of interests of a specified political party or social group. This role is best served by metaphors with a simple syntactic structure, highly conventionalised and em- ploying stereotypical content in their vehicle. In her description of metaphor’s me- aning-creating mechanism, the author emphasises the particular status of metaphoric pre- dicate that is suggested by the utterance’s sender and independently produced by the rece- iver using the metaphor vehicle’s connotation. The valuing so expressed is not subject to direct negation and so is quite powerful in terms of persuasiveness. Use of metaphors car- rying different valuing connotations whilst originating from a single notional field, as well as inventive witty transformation of the metaphor carrier practised in order to divert one’s attention from the evaluating content transferred by the same, can serve to neutrali- se an assessment being suggested by a metaphor. Ludic operations, often carried out on metaphors, enhance by themselves the persuasive power of utterances madę by politi- cians.
EN
The article includes comprehending persuasion on land of the communications grammar textbook, as well as important aspects associated with her, among others i.e. argumentation as coaxing important means or also system means of persuasion. Explaining the notion to persuasion to which already and this way the meaning publication number was devoted on land of different fields of study is a point of departure. An interest in comprehending persuasion results from her huge complexity and still of endless resources of her centres which constitute the subject of the research for many linguists. The article is a specific attempt to describe it, what more essential for persuasion, but on the plain of the communications grammar textbook.
5
Content available FAKE NEWS AS A WEAPON OF PERSUASION
94%
EN
Our study is qualitative research. It is a content analysis of more than 2,500 European and American posters of war propaganda identifying modern principles of persuasion and forms of discourse. The analysis of the themes demonstrates that the techniques used one hundred years ago to convince civilians to enlist had enormous potential for development to such a degree that they were adopted by modern political and commercial persuasion. Therefore, we can consider the propagandists of the Great War as modern spin doctors. The idea evolved after reading Propaganda (1928) by Edward Bernays, the nephew of Sigmund Freud. This is an astonishing book; it provides illuminating interpretations both for understanding of war propaganda – not just for the Great War – and for the commercial discourse of which Bernays became a promoting agent. During the Great War the propagandists used emotional and rational stratagems to convince volunteers to leave to the front. Among these, the fake news played an important role in the production of the posters that served to motivate and galvanize people to defend the ideals of the war. It was an organized disinformation action because, especially for American people, the war was very far in kilometres and in interest. Fake news has two different factors: wrong or unreasonable argumentations and false information used as premises. The success of the posters was that of moulding the agenda-setting and the opinion of citizens in order to increase the enlistment to defend the identity of the nation.
EN
The author analyses the role of the radio news bulletin, based on the example of “Fakty” on the RMF FM radio station. In this, he uses the theory of persuasive techniques researched by M. Gajlewicz; however, he also takes into account linguistic aspects of the communication and modern rhetoric understood as effective persuading. The purpose of the article is to prove that radio news on a commercial radio station is not actually just “pure” information; a neutral informative style is consequently displaced by the rhetorical style, full of intentionally used linguistic mechanisms, to make the information more persuasive.
EN
The aim of the present article is to offer a comparative analysis of advertising discourse with regard to the presence and classification of rhetorical figures as an efficient strategy of persuasion. Short commercial texts extracted directly from trade offers of producers, sales companies and online shops, as well as advertisements published on websites and in on-line versions of magazines have been analyzed. Due to limited textual capabilities, we have decided to restrict the scope of the analysis to texts which promote cosmetic products, as well as those that advertise various beauty treatments as a means of improving the appearance and well-being of contemporary women. In order to fully demonstrate the comparative aspect of the study, we have analyzed advertisements of the same products (of commonly known brands) in three linguistic versions, Polish, Italian and French, thus indicating the differences and similarities stemming from the employment of rhetorical figures.
EN
The subject of the study is the analysis of a series of Internet memes and linguistic jokes made available in pseudomemic form in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. Comedy itself feeds on any deviations from the norm observed in social, and especially political, life; it captures all the aberrations, nonsense and inconsistencies. The pandemic emergency is fraught with new situations and rules that constitute such a deviation. A vivid social reaction is especially visible in the multisemiotic comic genres, such as Internet memes, due to their channel of entry (the Internet becomes the main channel of communication outside of family communities during social isolation), plasticity and susceptibility to replication. Comic forms, apart from peculiarly ludic and humorous functions, also perform persuasive functions, activating the social need to differentiate between oneself and the stranger, and consequently isolate or integrate certain social groups. In addition, Internet memes also serve as a commentary on current events, thus prompting the audience to take a position. Persuasion dressed in a comic costume seems to be one of the strongest ways of social influence, because it spreads in its innocent and playful form like a viral and becomes firmly fixed in social consciousness.
EN
The PiS party, which has been in power in Poland since October 2015, has completely subjugated the public television TVP. Every day, it runs the state propaganda, whose symbol has become the headlines in the main Polish news called Wiadomości (The News). Germany, along with the opposition and the EU, is most often attacked in them. Headlines such as “Germany does not want a strong Poland”, “Brussels, Berlin and the opposition are against Poland”, “The opposition and Germany want to punish Poland” are not uncommon and are jokingly called paski grozy (horror headlines) by internet users. The aim of this article is to examine selected headlines in relation to the linguistic persuasion strategies that serve to reinforce the negative image of Germany in Poland on the one hand, and lead to the heating up of anti-German emotions on the other. A headline is understood here as a short sentence or sentence ellipsis that has a visual character and fulfils an introductory function for the right journalistic material. The character and communication pragmatic role of such headlines coincide with those known from the press. The corpus comprises 34 headlines coming from the period of 2016–2019 and was divided into four domains with regard to the topics touched upon in them: Politics, History, Society or Economy. In the analysis, elements related to the linguistic expression of reality assessment were taken into account. Four groups of these elements were distinguished: words and expressions independent of the author, interrogative sentences, evaluative elements at the system and sentence level, and evaluative elements referring to the external linguistic context. The analysis shows that with the help of the evaluation elements at the system and sentence level, connotations and implicatures, Germany and Germans were presented in a clearly unfavourable light. In eight headlines, negative information was implied, five headlines contained negative connotations, and in six headlines other negatively charged evaluation elements were added to neutral terms. Finally, in seven headlines, lexemes occur that have exclusively a hostility-increasing role. Only 3 headlines were classified as neutral.
10
Content available Stylistics and Persuasion
94%
Stylistyka
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2008
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tom 17
223-244
EN
The paper deals with stylistics and persuasion but, in order to be able to speak about them, we started first with the presentation of rhetoric that represents the core for both the study of style and the study of argumentation. Stylistics and persuasion represent, in fact, the two meanings of the new rhetoric: study of style and art of argumentation, which are only apparently divergent (in reality, they are able to function together). The figures of speech (associations of words that can embellish and render force to the discourse) are closely connected to the study of style. We insisted mainly on the rhetoric figures (figures of words, of meaning, of construction, of thought), as they are the ones that play a persuasive role. Persuasion is linked to argumentation, both being focused on the receiver and expecting an action from him. For argumentation we identified the most important argumentative strategies (of cooperation, interrogation, polemic negation, rejection, metaphor), based on different argumentation and persuasion techniques, that have as the main objective the influencing of the interlocutor, the change of his beliefs and attitudes, techniques that can also appear in negotiation, seen as an argumentative discourse. Persuasion, apart from the quality of the arguments presented, is also efficient if it fulfils four criteria: credibility, coherence, consistency and congruence and also if the language and style used are adequate to the auditory, to their social and educational standards etc. At the same time, because persuasion combines the appeal to intellect with the appeal to emotions, the arguments are frequently followed in the persuasive discourse by rhetoric figures. In order to see the connection between stylistics and persuasion, the way in which the rhetoric figures and the arguments help and complete each other during the persuasive discourse, we have chosen a fragment from the last discourse of Jim Jones, the founder of the Peoples Temple, discourse held in front of his followers and which had as a result the suicide of more than 900 people. This discourse proves the power of persuasion, the (sometimes) lethal force of language.
EN
Emotions are an inevitable part of everyday life. They can greatly influence human experience and action. It is therefore not surprising that their strength is also used in the area of political marketing. In this study, the emotions are treated, following its position in the public-political sphere, with special emphasis on the „party-voter“ relationship. As a part of the empirical research, chosen texts will be examined with regard to the manifestations of the emotions presented there and then questions of possible effects on their reader.
12
Content available Čas v psane publicistice
94%
CS
Joumalistic texts provide information about events that have happened or will most probably happen in the nearest futurę. Temporal data represent merely a single piece of information in these texts. They are expressed by means of morfological, lexical and syn- tactic elements. Apparently, the subject is considerably extensive and varied.
EN
The article discusses typical persuasive strategies used by leading producers of contraceptives on their websites and on the websites of particular contraceptive products from the media-linguistic point of view. The purpose of the paper is to examine illocutions, text-clusters and the text-image relation through which the author wants to persuade about the quality of his products and to present arguments for using hormonal contraception. The article also shows which strategies are used to advertise the pill as a lifestyle and beauty product.
EN
The subject of this article are the electoral slogans of the Polish politicians, who were the presidential candidates in 1990 and 2015. Looking at their the election slogans it is seen that the slogans represents a different tendency. The electoral slogans of the politicians, who were candidates in elections in 1990 say critically about the communist system and also say about the big value of Polish society. The electoral slogans of the politicians in presidential elections in 2015 say about patriotism, national traditions and about the big value of Poland as well. The present conditions change the themes of the electoral slogans. The author presented tendency which the slogan represented. The author described the linguistic persuasive techniques that politicians used in slogans.
15
Content available Psychologia społeczna czy retoryka empiryczna?
94%
EN
For Aristotle, rhetoric was simply an applied technique of persuasion (techne rhetoriké), i. e. an aptitude or producing opinions. From today’s vantage point, it comprised not only the art of fine speech, but also the theory of communication, the theory of argumentation and the essentials of psychology and drama. The problem of multi-aspects of persuasion and argumentation was last comprehensively presented by Aristotle, who interrelated rhetoric with logic, the speaker’s ethos (reliability) and the theory of rhetorical affections, which were aimed at influencing the feelings of the listeners (pathos). It was not until the turn of the forties and fifties of the twentieth century that researchers took a new interest in techniques of exerting influence on people. The experimental methods of Carl Hovland, Fritz Heider, Leo Festinger and others have shaped the modern scientific formula of the old affections theory, now called social psychology. It follows that rhetoric and social psychology, the two fields of influencing people, are closely linked, what Aristotle was undoubtedly aware of. The aim of this article is to find an answer to the question about the relationship between the affections theory and social psychology: do we have the right to call it empirical rhetoric?
EN
The aim of the paper was the analysis of the scientific disputes published in ”Pamiętnik Literacki” in the “Dyskusje – Korespondencja” section, and previously ”Polemika”, ”Dyskusje i Polemiki”, and ”Korespondencja”, from 1902 till 2008. The author of the paper has formulated the idea of the peripheral frame which describes the type of argumentation of a peripheral character which, nonetheless, introduces essential arguments into a discussion. While analysing the disputes published in ”Pamiętnik Literacki” the author of the paper has observed some repeated elements of the refutation frame which have a peripheral character, surrounding the subject and modulating the statement’s persuasion-ability. The frame elements can also be found in the sphere of inventive, thematic and disposable topos related to the composition limits. Among their most important mutual points (loci communes) there are: concern of the reader (argumentation like ad auditores), meta-polemic remarks, adminicula, or, in other words, reference to a dispute circumstances, causa scribendi, or refutation reasons, an opponent’s evaluation, or a group of arguments ad hominem.
FR
Les textes des polémiques scientifiques incluses dans « Pamiętnik Literacki » dans la partie « Dyskusje – Korespondencja » , et auparavant « Polemika » , « Dyskusje i Polemiki » , « Korespondencja » , de 1902 à 2008, étaient l’objet de l’analyse. L’auteure a formulé la notion de cadre périphérique qui représente le type d’argumentation à caractère non essentiel, mais introduisant dans une discussion des arguments essentiels. À la suite des études sur les textes des polémiques publiées dans « Pamiętnik Literacki » , on peut repérer des éléments récurrents du cadre réfutatif à caractère périphérique qui entourent l’argumentation pertinente et qui modulent le caractère persuasif d’un discours. Les éléments paratextuels sont également repérables dans la topique inventive, thématique et dispositive liée aux seuils de composition d’un texte donné. Parmi les lieux communs (loci communes) les plus importants des polémiques scientifiques qui sont apparues dans « Pamiętnik Literacki » se trouvent : le soin porté au lecteur (argumentation ad auditores) ; les remarques métapolémiques ; adminicula, c’est-à-dire la référence aux circonstances d’une discussion ; causa scribendi, c’est-àdire les causes d’une réfutation ; l’appréciation d’un adversaire, c’est-à-dire un groupe d’arguments ad hominem.
EN
Persuasion is defined as human communication designed to influence the judgements and actions of others (Simons & Jones 2011). The purpose of this research is to analyse the discourse of persuasion in Shakespeare from the perspective of historical pragmatics (Jucker & Taavitsainen 2010), with particular attention to modals employed as part of the strategies. The modals under investigation are proximal and distal central modals, SHALL/SHOULD, WILL/WOULD, CAN/COULD, MAY/MIGHT, MUST, and the contracted form ’LL. The data for the present study is drawn from The Riverside Shakespeare (Evans 1997) and the concordance by Spevack (1968-1980). The corpus includes both cases where the persuasion attempt is successful and unsuccessful. After defining persuasion in comparison to speech acts, quantitative analysis reveals how frequently the persuader and the persuadee employ a modal regarding each type of modality and speech act. Further analysis shows in what manner the persuader and the persuadee interact with each other in discourse resorting to the following strategies: modality, proximal and distal meanings of the modal, speech act of each utterance including a modal, and use of the same modal or switching modals in interaction. This research thus clarifies how effectively speakers attempted to persuade others in interactions, shedding light on communication mechanisms in the past.
EN
The discourse of slimming diets in contemporary Italian women's press. Qualitative analysis. Based on a corpus of articles extracted from contemporary Italian female magazines (2021) Donna Moderna and Grazia, this paper examines the nature of discourse of slimming diet. It is shown that the discourse has changed compared to the study conducted on the material from 2005-2008. Altogether 29 monthly issues have been analyzed. Currently emerging corpus does not contain many persuasive techniques related to emotions (Aristotle's pathos), the credibility of provided advice is enhanced mostly by arguments from authority (ethos). The innovation thus lies in the references to currently important societal topics, such as ecology (a manifestation of linguistic fashion). The research based on a rhetorical tools and analysis of press discourse shows that the topic of weight loss is treated nowadays with greater awareness and is being transferred to the pages of the men's press, in women's magazines its place is taken by e.g., cosmetic-surgical, or ecologic discourse. The conclusions from own research have been preceded by a review of theoretical issues in the field of a modern concept of a slimming diet, myth of beauty, development of the press in Italy, the role of cuisine and food in the Italian women's press.
EN
Attributive names as an example of the persuasive usage of the word formation categories in advertising textsThe article contains a description – based on selected examples – of different ways of a persuasive use of lexemes belonging (a real one or the one created for a specific advertising text) to a word formation category of the denominative names of the feature carrier: from the text updating of a systemic categorial meaning by its text change in relation to a systemic meaning to giving such a meaning to lexemes which, when it comes to word formation, are indivisible.
EN
This contribution discusses the option of interpreting protestant services regarding its persuasive moment. Based on current theological and rhetorical findings, the concept of persuasion is presented. Furthermore, the transcripts from two services are analyzed more closely focusing on how persuasive argumentation is brought forward in them. The analysis of rhetorical and of linguistic and prosodic patterns such as topics, speech rate, pausing and stressing unveils the rich persuasive moment in the context in which it has seldom been seen before.
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