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Content available remote Podoby a proměny žánru kázání v době vrcholného baroka
The authoress of the essay strives to point out some of the specific features in the writings of two notable baroque preachers, Pavel Josef Axlar and Daniel Nitsch. Both of these writers belonged to a new wave of writing sermons that started to emerge in the homiletics of the Czech baroque in the 1680s. Typical features of the sermons written in the following decades include: ingenious composition, sophisticated symbolism, abundant quotations, and above all, extensive use of metaphors and similes that often expanded into interesting allegories. The intention of the paper is to characterize the structure of the sermons, and to illustrate the individual characteristics in homiletics on the basis of an analysis of the final parts of the sermons. The last part of this paper deals with these preachers' influence upon their audience, and the transformation of the role of the subject and object, which is demonstrated by an interpretation of particular text.
Content available remote Ukotvenost a ukotvitelnost pojmu barok v českých literárních vodách
In Bohemian literary sources the terms 'Baroque' and 'Baroque literature' are not clarified, defined, or generally accepted. Some scholars talk about the birth or establishment of Baroque thought in the Bohemian Lands as having taken place about 1550. A frequent view is that Baroque literature began to assert itself in the Bohemian Lands shortly before the Battle of the White Mountain (1620). One also occasionally hears the opinion that Baroque literature did not begin in the Bohemian Lands till the 1680s. In dictionaries and other works concerned with literary theory and history the term 'Baroque literature' is normally linked with the theme of the fleetingness of life and of all earthly things and with the vivid depiction of the four last things (heaven, hell, death, and judgement), especially death. In Czech literature, one finds these themes most often in the period from the third quarter of the sixteenth century to the third quarter of the seventeenth century. Increased interest in death and fleetingness is, however, linked not only with Baroque thought but also, at least to the same extent, with late humanist thought. It is precisely the predilection for theatricality, frequently mentioned in connection with Baroque literature, which is linked with the humanist predilection for the expressively drawn backdrop of the story or interpretation and with the late humanist conception of the world as a theatre and of human life as a theatrical role. Other features of Baroque literature are said to be, for example, its dynamism, the attempt to intensify impression and expression, high dramatic tension and overstressing, and the use of paradox. If, for example, we look for dynamism and paradox in Czech literature of the period from the 1620s to the 1670s, we find it - as in the pre-White-Mountain literature - to be relatively marginal. The literature of 1600-80 changed very slowly. Writers probably began to search for new sources of inspiration and in some cases enlarged the circles of authors and works they considered authorities. Apart from Classical Antiquity and patristics in the literary work of the second and last third of the seventeenth century, an ever greater role was played by the literary tradition of the High Middle Ages. Folklore also became an increasingly important source of inspiration for writers. In addition, the relationship between the writer, language, and the printed word underwent certain changes. Language, on the one hand, was closely linked with the attitude to one's native region and country and to the tradition of catholicity; on the other hand, the possibilities of language were gradually being made relative: writers became increasingly conscious that much remained inexpressible with words, and even took refuge from time to time in the declaration -often stylized - about their own inability to express certain things in words.
Content available remote Vizualizace v barokní literatuře
This article is concerned with visualization in early Modern culture. it is based on the theoretical approach to the image and its function in Western christian culture from the early Middle Ages onwards. the article demonstrates how this understanding is reflected chiefly in devotional lite rature in the form of prayers and meditation. using period texts it demonstrates their potential for visualization, which serves not only to illustrate, but also, indeed mainly, to form the mnememes, which have other important uses in religion. the article also demonstrates the links between visual and literary documents, of which the theory of perception and memory have been its shared starting points since classical Antiquity, linked by an early Modern understanding of the image in the roman catholic religion. the article offers new perspectives on early Modern documents of literature, reveals certain mechanisms concealed within them, and calls for their interdisciplinary study.
The purpose of this article is to describe the reasons of the first conflict between Empress Eudoxia and bishop John Chrysostom mentioned in the historical sources. It took place between autumn 400 and spring 401 A.D. As Palladius reveals in the Dialogue on the Life of St. John Chrysostom, among the accusations against Chrysostom presented at the Synod of the Oak held in July 403, there was a charge of treason for calling the empress a Jezabel. Pseudo-Martyrios, a direct witness to events at Constantinopole in the years 398-407, in his funeral oration on John Chrysostom many times referred to Eudoxia as a second Jezebel. Moreover, the comparison also appears in homilies, commonly considered to be non-authentic, only imitating Chrysostom's sermons. Later writers (cf. The Life of Epiphanius by Polybius, the Bishop of Rhinokorura, The Life of Porphyry, Bishop of Gaza by Marcus Diaconus, The Lives of Chrysostomos by Theodoros of Tirmithus and Pseudo-Georgos of Alexandria) understood this comparison as a simple parallel with a biblical story: greedy Eudoxia desired and seized the property of a local widow, Chrysostom protested against the court like the prophet Elias. The author of the article points out another interpretation of this comparison and of the conflict between the bishop and the Empress. John Chrysostom who invented the concept of the biblical parallel consequently uses the motive of Jezebel in two contexts: the stories of prophet Elias, escaping from the Qeen in fear, and as an example of a bad queen, who forced her husband, king Ahab, to the evil. The latter image is, according to the author of the article, appropriate to Basilissa Eudoxia. Analyzing numismatic sources, the author shows that Eudoxia introduced a significant change in the image of ideology of Empress's power, particularly visible on her coins. It seems that the moment she received the title of Augusta in 400, both she and her court began to introduce the new ideology of power. Then John Chrysostom noticed a dark and too influential queen - a second Jezebel - in the humble and pious wife of the emperor, commonly considered as inefficient.
Content available remote K žánrové diferenciaci české poezie doby baroka
For its methodology this article draws chiefly on the theory of intertextuality, emphasizing the genre as model. It is premised on the idea that similar works gradually group around a successful prototype text, leading to the genre category. The author takes issue with existing classifications of Czech Baroque verse, and questions the validity of fundamental criteria such as the opposites secular:spiritual, to be sung:to be spoken, lyric:epic. He proposes a more sophisticated differentiation of genre in contrast to forms of publication, which include the hymn book and the broadside ballad. His interpretation concentrates particularly on the production of Czech hymn books, both Roman Catholic and Lutheran, which is distinguished by a quite surprisingly wide range of genres and sub‑genres. From contemporaneous books on poetics and rhetoric one can reasonably deduce mainly Humanist genre terms like eclogue, ode, and epicede. Contemporaneous sources also distinguish between two distinct, even considerably opposed, categories – the hymn and the lament –, which in practice appear in various forms (the Christmas anthem, the Easter anthem; the lament of Protestant exiles, the Passion lament, and the funeral lament). What is particularly important in hymn books is the distinction – not made in Czech scholarly literature on the topic, but common, for example, in the German‑speaking world – between the hymn (closely linked with high days and the liturgy, intended primarily for choral singing) and the spiritual song (used in the cultivation of the individual spiritual life in private; with an indirectly expressed religious content; employing topoi of contemporaneous non‑religious verse). Among the hymns there are, for example, the Whitsun anthem, the Eucharistic anthem, and the Marian hymn. Among the spiritual songs there are songs of personal anxiety, sung meditations on vanity and transience, and love songs addressed to the Lord Jesus. The various genres were concealed in the particular form of publication in which they appeared.
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