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The agricultural land market is being gradually unified in spite of the fact that it still functions in radically different way in two groups of countries. The first one includes 15 old EU member states which acceded to the EU before 2004. The second group comprises the remaining European states which abandoned the system of state and collective management of agricultural land in the 1990s (including 7 new member states which joined the EU after 2004) (Rynek ziemi rolniczej 2006, p. 44). This paper is an attempt to analyse the conditions and criteria for agricultural land acquisition by foreigners in selected countries of the European Union. National statistics concerning the prices of land sale and usufruct lease as well as Eurostat data have been used in this study. The trends in the development of agricultural real property markets, particularly in relation to the prices of land sale and usufruct lease, have been analysed. The agricultural land prices did not undergo significant vaiations in the newly admitted countries before their accession and just after it in 2004. This situation started to change from 2005, when land prices rose significantly in Poland, Latvia, Slovakia and Hungary.
The paper analyzes theoretical and methodological principles of the development of land monitoring and ecological monitoring of agricultural lands in Ukraine. The study represents the objectives and prospects of improving the monitoring of lands, it draws attention to the peculiarities of the ecological monitoring of agricultural lands. The results of the soil monitoring of agricultural lands are used for determining the legal basis of regulating land relations in the course of economic and monetary (normative and expert) assessment of lands, determining the size of the land rent, in planning measures aimed at restoring soil fertility and increasing crop yields, adjusting agricultural technologies, environmental and agrochemical zoning of territories, identifying areas of producing agricultural crops for manufacturing food products for children and dietetic products, developing recommendations for efficient and environmentally friendly use of agrochemicals.
The paper offers a spatial analysis (by poviat) of RDP Measure 5 'Afforestation of agricultural land' in Wielkopolska voivodeship and an assessment of individually operated agricultural holdings in terms of the absorption of funds earmarked for this purpose. The analysis was conducted on the basis of six indices, which were standardised and presented in the form of a normalised mean. The analysis covers the years 2004-2006, i.e. the first financial perspective of Poland's EU membership. The materials used were those of the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture (AR&MA) on afforestation of agricultural land under the RDP. The research showed there to be wide differences in the absorption of RDP funds by individually held farms of over 1 ha AL earmarked for this purpose. This is an effect of a spatially variable activity of those farms in the absorption of the means, but also of insufficient information concerning the conditions and procedure of granting assistance, because the implementation of Measure 5 had not been preceded by a programme of consultancy and training.
As to the volume of agricultural land, Poland’s capacity to accomplish agricultural objectives is relatively high. From the geodetic perspective, it has 18.93 mln ha of agricultural land at its disposal, including 13.97 mln ha of arable land. During the time of system transformation, the basic trend in the use of these resources was towards a quick reduction in the volume of agricultural land used by farms and a deterioration in the degree of their use on farms. Poland’s accession to the EU, along with the adoption of the Common Agricultural Policy, did not hinder the exclusion of agricultural land from farms. It has improved, however, (at least in the formal aspect) the degree of their use within agricultural holdings. The fundamental drawback of current agricultural land management in Poland is low - as per demand - dynamics in the improvement of farm area structure, and in particular the lack of an articulated trend towards rapid growth in the agricultural land volume among agricultural holdings comprising arable land of above 50 ha. If such circumstances are to remain unchanged, the competitive edge of Polish agriculture will quickly fall into decline.
After the socio-economic events in Slovakia in 1989, an abandonment of the cultural agricultural land poses a problem of extensive non-use of land (approximately 17.5% to 18.6%). The article discusses the history of this phenomenon in the country through changes in land (soil fund) development during the first Czechoslovak Republic and from 1945 until now. During the first Czechoslovak Republic, Slovakia had historically the largest areas of grassland (1,050,118 ha) and arable land (1,942,770 ha). Since then the area of agricultural land has declined, while the acreage of forest land (parcels) has risen. In the period 1998 - 2006 there was an overall loss of arable land of about 49,084 ha, which is the most in the modern history of Slovakia after its creation in 1993.
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