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This paper is a study in the Egyptian and the Polish economy. It is an attempt made to analyze the common economic roots and economic relations between Egypt and Poland. The article also answers questions related to similarities and possibilities of economic cooperation between these two regional economic leading countries. It was based on studies concerning the transformation process in Egypt and Poland, the economic development in both countries, and current economic data. Both Egypt and Poland reached an advanced level of economic transformation. In Poland the transformation process was powerful from the beginning, increasing the role of the private sector in economic activities. Egypt made the change by applying the policy of gradual doses to minimize the social cost of transformation. Egypt and Poland also liberalized the foreign exchange market by moving from the fixed exchange system to the managed float exchange system. The privatization methods and policies were similar in both countries, as were also the sectors covered (almost all civilian sectors were involved). Both Egypt and Poland were at the heart of the transformation process almost at the same time. Currently Egypt enjoys a modern widespread and integrated infrastructure like many of the Central European countries. It is the leading economy in the Arab region, whereas Poland is the leading country in Central Europe. Egypt entered into a partnership agreement with the EU, and Poland became a full member of the EU in May 2004. However, though Poland is now a part of the EU, the trade between Egypt and Poland is still at a very low level. The volume of Polish exports to Egypt stands at the annual level of approximately USD 80 mln. Polish entrepreneurs import from Egypt chiefly plastics, vegetables and textiles that are worth about USD 10 mln per year. In fact, the low level of trade between both countries is matched by a very low level of Egyptian tourists to Poland. There are similarities between Egypt and Poland as two economic leading countries, each in its own region. Both countries have also similar aims related to economic growth and trade liberalization. Although Egypt and Poland could be economic partners, the figures of trade between them fall below such expectations. It is strongly recommended to promote trade of goods and services between these two countries. Poland should also be included within the Egyptian tourism schedules.
It's shown that the transformation process is put by national experts in a quite similar chronological frame, mostly as 1989/90-1992; 1992-1994/95; 1995-1998/99; 1999, in view of the contents and coverage of the national science & technology policy. However, approaches to the transformation system varied depending on (i) specifics of national S&T systems during the socialist period, (ii) the approach to the transformation process, focusing either on following the Western model or on a series of measures meant to 'preserve' the institutional build-up of the S&T inherited from the past. But in spite of these distinctions, the transformation process in post-socialist countries of CEE ended up by adopting the conceptual documents harmonized with ones existing at the EU level. However, as the analysis shows, in early 2000s the national S&T system in its narrow sense, that is, R&D / innovation performers, nevertheless remained at the first phase of the transformation process, in the condition of isolation/fragmentation, in a major part of the CEE countries. Therefore, national science & technology systems could be conceptualized by early 2000s, but, for the most part of post-socialist countries, failed to be realized. The problems of fragmentation can be better understood through (i) evaluation of the institutional change within the national science & technology system, which reveals the most difficult segment in the transformation process, 'branch' science; (ii) analysis of supply and demand concepts in the context of national S&T systems.
The article touches upon the problem of government's role evolution, which is the result of globalization process. The thesis of the paper says that a government is not able to stop and create efficient obstacles for the globalization process. When a government creates national economic policy it can only actively react to the evolution of modern global economy in a way, which is not contradictory to the basic Hayekian spontaneous forces of globalization.
Post-communist studies have interpreted and analysed the political transformation in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC's), and its consequences for social life in different ways. In general, two approaches can be distinguished: a continuous and a discontinuous approach. This paper instead advances an ideational approach, which considers ideas to have a central mediating role in processes of transformation. The central question of this paper is if and how ideas, originating in communist times, continue to have relevance for everyday life in CEEC's. Using examples from a study on the interpretation of cooperation in a Slovak rural community, this paper shows that people evaluate and explain past and present-day cooperation as bricoleurs, re-using ideas originating in communist times. The concept of ideational bricolage shows that ideas are used dynamically: people actively reproduce, redefine and reconstruct old ideas in a new context.
The analysis of growth covers 27 countries and is divided into two parts. In part one we present the characteristics of growth paths during the process of transformation. The objective of the second part has been the identification of shares contributed to the growth of real GDP by inputs of labour and capital on the one hand and the increased productivity of these factors (TFP). I appeared that the most important driving force of GDP growth had been the changes in TFP. In Central Europe the highest rate of TFP increase was observed in the Baltic countries - higher than, e.g. in Czech Republic or Hungary. TFP increases among countries of other regions were the highest in Turkmenistan and Serbia Montenegro. Sensitivity analysis indicates that our results are stable and only weakly depend on model parameters.
The article provides a sociological reflection on the processes which Bratislava has undergone during the transformation and post-transformation periods. The development processes have been influenced by both systemic socio-political transition into a pluralist and market oriented system and the formation of Slovak statehood which made Bratislava the capital of the Slovak Republic. The civilization factor is one of the most important factors that have influenced the development of Bratislava. It is connected to the ongoing post-industrial and global processes that frame the developing space of Bratislava in broad international contexts.
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