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Content available remote The Sensitivity of the SERVQUAL Score to the Choice of the Fuzzy Conversion Scale
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Rozmyta metoda SERVQUAL umożliwia ocenę jakości usług w sytuacji, gdy wyniki pomiaru percepcji i oczekiwań wyrażone są w postaci liczb rozmytych. Wyniki po-miaru wyrażone w postaci liczb rozmytych są efektem stosowania rozmytych skal konwer-sji, będących najpopularniejszą formą skal rozmytych. Rozmyte skale konwersji zakładają, że ich punkty wyrażone są w postaci liczb rozmytych. Wybór parametrów liczb rozmytych opisujących poszczególne punkty skal pomiarowych jest najczęściej subiektywny. W arty-kule oceniono wpływ wyboru rozmytych skal konwersji na stabilność wyników oceny jako-ści usług z zastosowaniem rozmytej metody SERVQUAL. Oceny stabilności dokonano za-równo dla poszczególnych wymiarów, jak i dla ogólnego wskaźnika SERVQUAL. W oce-nie wykorzystano wyniki badania satysfakcji pracowników jednostek samorządu terytorial-nego województwa zachodniopomorskiego. Wyniki analizy sugerują brak istotnego wpływu postaci rozmytych skal konwersji na stabilność wyników oceny jakości usług z zastosowa-niem rozmytej metody SERVQUAL.(abstrakt oryginalny)
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The Fuzzy SERVQUAL method enables to assess the service quality when the measurement results of the performance perception and expectations are expressed in the form of fuzzy numbers. The measurement results expressed in the form of fuzzy numbers are the results of applying the fuzzy conversion scales which are the most popular form of fuzzy scales. Fuzzy conversion scales assume that their points are expressed in the form of fuzzy numbers. The choice of fuzzy number parameters which describe the various points of measurement scales is most often subjective. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of the choice of the fuzzy conversion scale on the stability of the assessment results of the ser-vice quality using the fuzzy SERVQUAL method. The stability assessment was made both for the individual dimensions and the overall SERVQUAL score. The results of employee satisfaction surveys of the West Pomeranian Province local government were used for the purpose of the assessment. The results suggest that there is no significant impact of the form of fuzzy conversion scales on the stability of the assessment results of the service quality us-ing the fuzzy SERVQUAL method.(original abstract)
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Purpose: The aim of the paper was to measure the quality of customer service from the perspective of the personnel of the chosen service company using the Servqual method. The scope of the paper concerns the quality of customer service from the perspective of a group of employees hired by the company where the satisfaction research was conducted in part I of the paper. Design/methodology/approach: The Servqual method was used in the research and its renewed use was governed by the possibility of comparison of the research results while using the same tool. This allows, in the opinion of the authors, for a higher level of significance of references in comparative analysis. The unweighted (SQn) and weighted (SQw) servqual indicators were calculated for each of the examined dimensions. They were also interpreted. Findings: The basis of providing the service that is satisfying to the customer is to recognise the customer expectations and to skilfully transform them into aims and tasks of the service organisation. The effectiveness of realisation of these tasks will depend largely on the competence and motivation of all employees of the service organisation. It is impossible to talk about service quality without analysing the relationships between the service quality and the customer satisfaction. Research limitations/implications: Extending the research of the customer service quality beyond the perspective of a client by examining the personnel perspective does not exhaust the subject of the research. In the future, a deeper comparative analysis should be made along with monitoring of the changes. Practical implications: Presented approach finds practical application in the process of identification of the weaknesses of customer service quality and indicates factors of changes which can be used for improving the quality also in small enterprises. Originality/value The paper confirms the need to use the Servqual method in evaluation of both perspectives, where each of these two assessments may shape the quality of the service understood as general impression of the client which results from comparison of both positive and negative impressions that concern the service company and the service provided. (original abstract)
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The paper contains the results of research carried out in a food company. There are presented dual approach to the assessment of the logistics customer service quality level. For the internal analysis there was applied ranking method based on a survey conducted among employees, while the external analysis was based on Servqual method.(abstrakt oryginalny)
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W opracowaniu zawarto wyniki badań przeprowadzonych w wybranym przedsiębiorstwie branży spożywczej. Zaprezentowano dualne podejście do oceny poziomu jakości logistycznej obsługi klienta. Do analizy wewnętrznej zastosowano metodę rankingową opartą na ankiecie przeprowadzonej wśród pracowników przedsiębiorstwa, natomiast analizę zewnętrzną przeprowadzono na podstawie Servqual.(original abstract)
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The main objective of this paper is to present and analyse the findings of research which aims to measure the services that a locally-based SME (Small-Medium Enterprise) campus store of a farm school provides to its customers. The examined start-up store is operated by the College students in the context of their entrepreneurship, business and marketing classes. After one year of operation students decided to evaluate the quality of the store's services and measure the customers' satisfaction by applying the well-known SERVQUAL model. The deployment of the model revealed at first the importance of the store know-how to measure services from the consumers' perspective so as to better understand their needs. Secondly, the findings of the research highlighted 'Security', 'Reliability' and 'Empathy' as the most significant dimensions. The findings of this research can help small and medium enterprises to improve the services they provide to their customers by focusing on these three important dimensions. (original abstract)
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W niniejszym artykule omówiono istotę satysfakcji klientów. Przybliżono metodologię badania satysfakcji klienta. Zaprezentowano etapy postępowania do uzyskania miary arytmetycznej jakości usług badanych metodą SERVQUAL oraz dla uzyskania średniej ważonej jakości badanych usług.
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Celem artykułu jest ocena jakości kształcenia w wyższej uczelni w perspektywie modelu luk jakości i założeń metody Servqual. Obejmuje trzy części. Pierwsza ukazuje syntezę podejść metodycznych do badania jakości usług. W drugiej podjęto dyskusję nad kategorią jakości kształcenia i szerzej jakości usług edukacyjnej wyższej uczelni. Z kolei część trzecia jest egzemplifikacją tytułowego problemu - na podstawie badań 773 absolwentów Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie ukazuje podejście studentów-usługobiorców procesu uczelni do definiowania jakości studiów i rze(abstrakt oryginalny)
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The purpose of the paper is to assess the quality of university education in the perspective of the gap analysis model of service quality and Servqual method. This article is composed of three parts. The first one shows the synthesis of methodological approaches to the study of services' quality. In the second part the problem of quality of education and broader quality of university education services is discussed. The third part is an exemplification of the title problem. It presents the results of the research done on the sample of 773 graduates of the University of Economics in Krakow. It shows how they define the quality of university studies and the real meaning of 15 basic criteria for assessing the quality of service at the university.(original abstract)
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W niniejszym artykule omówiono zasadność stosowania najpopularniejszej metody pomiaru jakości usług - SERVQUAL. Metoda ta wydaje się być, pomimo wielu wysuwanych pod jej adresem zarzutów, metodą w miarę efektywną oraz możliwą do zastosowania w różnych sektorach usług zarówno w celach diagnostycznych, jak i porównawczych. Jednak podstawowym warunkiem efektywnego zastosowania tej metody jest każdorazowe dostosowanie konstrukcji modelu do typu prowadzonych badań, charakteru danych usług oraz warunków lokalnych czy kontekstu kulturowego.
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SERVQUAL has emerged as the most popular and most widely used method for measuring service quality. This scale was developed by Parasuraman et al. in 1985, and refined in 1988, 1991 and 1994. It is a survey instrument which claims to measure the service quality in any type of service organization on five generic dimensions (tangibles, reliability, assurance, responsiveness, empathy). The review of the literature reveals that the SERVQUAL instrument draws attention from both academics and practitioners. Since its creation, this method has been the object of various criticisms raised by a number of authors. Therefore, this paper presents some problems identifies and discussed in the literature. SERVQUAL has been extensively criticised on both theoretical and operational grounds (Buttle; 1996). Other authors claim that the difficulties associated with the SERVQUAL measure that are identified in the literaure can be grouped in four main categories: (1) the use of difference or gap scores, (2) poor predective and convergent validity, (3) the ambiguous definition of the "expectations" construct and (4) unstable dimensionality (Van Dyke et al.; 1999). Besides the discussed weaknesses, SERVQUAL has some particular advantages, which were also presented in this paper (e.g. information on service quality gaps can help managers diagnose where performance improvement can best be targeted). To sum up the foregoing, it has to be pointed that despite the criticisms levelled at the method, SERVQUAL is still regarded as a very useful tool and a leading measure of service quality. But in each situation this method needs to be adapted for the type of research conducted, the specific service environments and the cultural context. (original abstract)
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Objective: The main goal of the article is to propose a new framework exhibiting relationship between tangible dimension and all other intangible dimensions of SERVQUAL used to analyse the relation to re-patronage intention. Research Design & Methods: Hypothesised relationships were tested on data which was collected in Bangkok area using a survey questionnaire. Final sample consisted of 225 respondents, frequent visitors of community malls. The data was analysed using exploratory factor analysis as well as simple and multiple regression analysis. The six constructs, studied in this paper, were examined for differences in means across all demographic variables by employing analysis of variance or ANOVA. Findings: The results exposed that tangible dimension had significant correlation to reliability, empathy, responsiveness and assurance dimensions consecutively. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that re-patronage intention was explained by empathy, responsiveness and assurance dimensions, not reliability dimension. The ANOVA tests showed no significant differences in means of general data and all other constructs. Implications & Recommendations: To make shoppers to come back to the malls, managers should recognize the important role of tangible items as an antecedent to intangible items. Retail developers could devote more efforts to maximize the attractiveness of tangible elements and identify the weak areas of service quality by examining the multi-item constructs used to measure service quality. Contribution & Value Added: This study proposed and tested a modified conceptual model adapted from that proposed by Reimer and Kuehn (2005). (original abstract)
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The share of discount stores in the Polish retail trade, has had a strong trend upward for several years. Poles pay more and more attention to the quality of the services offered by the discount stores network. Hence the aim of the article is testing the quality of services in the selected network. The research was conducted in years 2015-2017 on the basis of the case study using Servqual method. The use of this method allowed to determine customer satisfaction in Netto discount stores chain as the difference between customer perception and expectations. The five criteria: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy were taken into account for estimating the quality of services. The conducted research allowed to state which of the mentioned areas is on a satisfactory quality level and which one is not, what weaknesses and strengths of the service offered by the studied discount stores chain are and what the relation between customer satisfaction and service quality is. The analysis of research results allows to state that retail chains should examine the quality level of their services systematically in order to be able to conduct expansive policy on Polish market regarding the growth of customer requirements.(author's abstract)
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Zaprezentowano zalety i wady jednej z metod wykorzystywanej do pomiaru jakości usług agroturystycznych. Jakość i sposoby jej pomiaru mają szczególne znaczenie w turystyce i agroturystyce, ponieważ dzięki uzyskanym wynikom możemy udoskonalić usługę. Analizując metodę SERVQUAL zwrócono szczególną uwagę na specyfikę usług agroturystycznych. (abstrakt oryginalny)
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The article presents advantage and disandvantages of method used to measure quality service in agrotourism. Quality and manner measure have, sense in touristic and agrotourism, because owing to receive results it is possible perfecing services. Analyses method SER VQUAL pay attention at speciality services in agrotourism. (original abstract)
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The following paper presents the results of research conducted with the application of the Servqual method, referring to the quality of educational services at the example of classes conducted as a part of the Leonardo-Vetpro project in November 2015. According to the research results, the strengths of the educational service include the areas taken from the Servqual method, such as the fast pace of reaction, empathy and the assurance of receiving the service of the right quality. The other two areas, the material aspect and reliability receive negative results, which means that suitable improvement actions should be introduced. (original abstract)
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W artykule poruszono kwestię dotyczącą poziomu jakości obsługi klienta w multiagencjach funkcjonujących na polskim (Olsztyn) i litewskim (Kowno) rynku ubezpieczeniowym. Badania przeprowadzono z wykorzystaniem metody Servqual wśród klientów korzystających z usług multiagentów. Celem badania było ustalenie ważności każdego z pięciu elementów składowych jakości obsługi klienta: wymiaru materialnego, niezawodności, reakcji na oczekiwania klienta, fachowości i empatii. Dodatkowo określono pojawiające się rozbieżności pomiędzy oczekiwaniami klientów a ich faktyczną obsługą oraz poziomem usług, który są w stanie zaakceptować. (abstrakt oryginalny)
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In the following article the quality of consumer service in multiagencies operating on the Polish and Lithuanian insurance market is discussed. Data was collected from the survey conducted with the use of Servqual model among the clients consulting multiagents. The aim of the research was to determine the importance of each of the dimensions directly influencing the consumer service quality: material dimension, reliability factor, approach to the consumer needs, professionalism and empathy. Additionally, the author determines the existing discrepancies between the consumer's expectations and the perception of the service received. Additionally, the survey was to determine the quality level making the costumers satisfied with the service offered. (original abstract)
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W opracowaniu, które składa się z dwóch części: teoretycznej i empirycznej, dokonano diagnozy świadomości, jak też rozumienie pojęcia jakości usług ubezpieczeń przez kierownictwo polskich zakładów ubezpieczeń majątkowych, jak też klientów indywidualnych. Badania zostało przeprowadzone z wykorzystaniem metody SERVQUAL wśród klientów indywidualnych województwa małopolskiego, posiadających umowę ubezpieczenia majątkowego. Celem badania była identyfikacja czynników jakości usług ubezpieczeniowych w warunkach zmieniającego się polskiego rynku ubezpieczeń majątkowych, jak też określenie hierarchii ich istotności. Ponadto, w oparciu o zmodyfikowaną metodę SERVQUAL określono rozbieżności pomiędzy oczekiwaniami klientów, ich postrzeganą obsługą, jak też poziomem usług, który byli by w stanie zaakceptować - czyli "strefa tolerancji". (abstrakt oryginalny)
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In this paper the author made a diagnosis of the awareness, as well as the notion of insurance service quality understood by the management of Polish property insurance institutions and by individual customers. The research was conducted using the SERVQUAL method among individual customers who hold property agreements in Podkarpackie Voivodship. The objective of the research was to identify the factors of insurance service quality in the changing Polish property insurance market, as well as to determine the hierarchy of their importance. Moreover, on the basis of the modified SERVEQUAL method, the difference was identified between perceptions and expectations of the offered property service and the service which individual customers were able to accept, i.e., the "tolerance area". (original abstract)
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Celem artykułu jest zaprezentowanie metod, które mogą i które są w praktyce polskich i zagranicznych uczelni wykorzystywane do pomiaru satysfakcji studentów. Uwagę poświęcono między innymi modyfikacjom modelu SERVQUAL, SERVPERF, IPA, jak i innym, mniej popularnym metodom. W artykule wykorzystano polskie i zagraniczne źródła bibliograficzne oraz wyniki badań własnych autorki. (abstrakt oryginalny)
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The purpose of the article is to present the methods which can be used potentially and which are used in practice of Polish and foreign universities for the measurement of the satisfaction of students. The attention is devoted, among others, to modifications of the SERVQUAL, SERVPERF, IPA models, as well as different, less popular methods. In the article Polish and foreign bibliographical sources as well as results of the author's own examinations are exploited. (original abstract)
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W artykule zaprezentowano ocenę przydatności modelu servqual do oceny jakości usług medycznych w szpitalu zachowawczym w polskich warunkach. Omówiono model jakości w ochronie zdrowia. Przedstawiono wykorzystanie metody SERVQUAL do pomiaru jakości usług w szpitalu zachowawczym na przykładzie Wojewódzkiego Szpitala Rehabilitacyjnego dla Dzieci w Ameryce.
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The article describes the usage of Servqual model to evaluate the quality level of health care services in hospital. Servqual model is based on gap measurement between patient's expectations of a health care service quality and the patient's perceptions of the service performance. In the research a standard 22 statements questionnaire has been used and assessment of the relative importance of the five dimensions to the patient has been applied. (original abstract)
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Serqual stanowi przykład metody zbudowanej w oparciu o wytyczne TQM, służącej budowaniu jakości totalnej, koncentrując się w tym przypadku, na zagadnieniu usprawnienia jakości usług.
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W artykule przedstawiono i omówiono metodę oceny jakości usług servqual oraz jej implementację w firmie oferującej usługi szkoleń lotniczych. Za pre zen towa no także wyniki przeprowadzonych przez firmę badań jakości świadczonych usług. (abstrakt oryginalny)
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This paper presents servqual method of measuring the quality of services and it imple mentation in the company that offers aviation training services. It also contains the results of quality services research. (original abstract)
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W opracowaniu omówiono metody pomiaru jakości obsługi klienta indywidualnego usług ubezpieczeń majątkowych, do której zaliczono metodę Servqual. Znajomość przytoczonej metody jest niezwykle ważna w kontekście systematycznie zmieniających się wymagań, jak też preferencji klientów. Powszechność jej sprawia, że ma ona szerokie zastosowanie w usługach. W opracowaniu zostały wymienione zarówno zastrzeżenia, jak i zalety podawane przez grono badaczy. Dokonano diagnozy jakości obsługi klientów indywidualnych zakładów ubezpieczeń majątkowych województwa małopolskiego. Określono rozbieżności między postrzeganiem przez klientów jakości usług związanych z ubezpieczeniami majątkowymi a ich oczekiwaniami oraz tzw. strefą tolerancji, czyli poziomem usługi, który klienci byliby w stanie zaakceptować. (abstrakt oryginalny)
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The paper discusses methods of measuring the quality of property insurance service offered to an individual customer, including the Servqual method. The knowledge of this method is extremely important in the context of systematically changing requirements, as well as customers preferences. The universality of this method causes that it is widely used in services. In the paper there are both reservations and advantages given by a group of researchers. The diagnosis was made as to the quality of property insurance service offered to individual customers in the Małopolska Voivodship. Some discrepancies were determined between perceptions and expectations of individual customers as to the quality of property insurance service and the level of the service which they were able to accept, i.e. the tolerance area. (original abstract)
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W pracy podjęto próbę integracji prezentowanych w literaturze wyników badań na temat pomiaru jakości usług w celu oceny wpływu modelu SERVQUAL na rozwiązania przyjmowane przez innych autorów. Przeprowadzono również analizę sposobów doboru próby stosowanych w tego typu badaniach. (fragment tekstu)
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In this article, the author focuses on models for measuring the quality of services, in particular the SERVQUAL model and its derivatives. On the basis of 249 publications available in the Emerald and ProQuest databases (published in English), the author analyses the impact of the SERVQUAL model on the solutions adopted by other researchers. The author focuses on the applied measurement models, the types of scales and their number of levels, the number of dimensions, the method for assessing the credibility of scales, and the external variables used. She also assesses the methods of selecting the samples. Due to the inconsistent results obtained by various authors, it was not possible to analyse the relationships present. Assessing the appropriateness of the analysed models in formal and substantive terms, the author found that to apply such models without a prior assessment as to their reliability and accuracy (at each successive application) is not a safe approach for companies. The author emphasises the need to develop model solutions based on theoretical assumptions other than those of SERVQUAL. (original abstract)
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Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the usefulness of the Servqual method in improving the customer service quality in terms of identification of the deficiencies in the process of providing the service. Design/methodology/approach: The Servqual method has been used in the research and it helped evaluating the level of customer expectations.The evaluation was based on separate criteria which allowed to examine how the perception of the service by customers is shaped. The unweighted(SQn) and weighted (SQw) servqual indicator was calculated for each of the examined dimensions. They were also interpreted. Findings: The main result of the work was the diagnosis and the evaluation of the customer service quality in the chosen service company. Moreover, received results confirmed the high usefulness of the Servqual method for the management of the quality in terms of requirements of the customers. Research limitations/implications: During the research and inference, it was noticed that the client's perspective, although prominent, should be extended by the perspective of the researched subject's personnel. Practical implications: The presented approach finds practical application in the process of identification of the weaknesses of customer service and indicates factors of changes which can be used for improving the quality also in small enterprises. The method, on the one hand, is simple to use and its results offer clear indications for the people managing the company. The dissemination of its usage could significantly improve the situation, especially of the SME, which often cannot detect the expectations of the customers and cannot formulate the customer service strategy effectively. Originality/value The paper confirms effectiveness of the Servqual method in evaluation of the customer service quality in small companies and allows to identify deficiencies in the service provision process. (original abstract)
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