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EN
The author of the article, in its first section, describes overall theoretical assumptions concerning political culture, its basic concepts and definitions. The object of the analysis is primarily the picture of political capture of the Polish society. In the second part of the article, the concept of civic education is presented. The author points to various important aspects concerning constructing a civic society through a system of civic education.
EN
In Europe great attention is devoted to civic education; in order to ensure the development of democratic countries, the majority of society must understand how the political system functions. A comparison of national standards for primary education and general secondary education reveals that primary school students acquire more comprehensive civic knowledge, and that education planning documents are oriented towards patriotic, not civic, education. Results of quantitative and qualitative studies confirm that students have poor knowledge about civic participation and insufficient skills for living in a democratic country. Problems existing in civic education are caused by educational standards and the process of political planning; they are also caused by covert education content (teachers' understanding of democratic participation, opinions about controversial historical aspects), the environment (democracy at school, participation of parents and students in decision making at school), passive learning and the political situation in the country. At the same time, the desire of politicians to foster patriotism can be achieved also through facilitating understanding of civic values and participation in democratic processes.
EN
(Title in Polish - 'Dzialania opozycji politycznej w latach 70. i 80. w PRL na rzecz edukacji obywatelskiej. Refleksje nad pominietym dyskursem'). The article presents activities oriented toward an independent civic adult education under a totalitarian regime. The text is intended as a voice in the debate about the opposition's victory over the communist rule - the debate that is still on, twenty years after the systemic transition began. In the mainstream discussions about the paths leading to transition and democratization of the system there is no mention of education. Educational dimension of oppositional activities in the PRL helped people to acquire critical understanding of their civil and political situation and provided the means to raise their awareness. It was education that conditioned a collective action against the system. From the pedagogical point of view, forms of this educational activity seem very interesting. Referring to both the critical education, some contexts of post-pedagogy and to biographical and lifelong learning they well preceded academic theories of that period. Education in the times of the mass opposition movement was of an informal character and reached beyond the official educational system. This informal education resulted in greater understanding of the experienced oppression and provided the motivation to overthrow the regime. The description of these educational activities reveals the significance of the socially-involved education for the processes of emancipation.
EN
The paper outlines the issues of civic education within the context of contemporary European trends, educational initiatives and approaches to the civic education. From this perspective, school curricular documents, their changes carried out during the political transformation of the Slovak society as well as students' achievements in the IEA Civic Education Study are analyzed and evaluated. The research is focused on study how the school graduates of several generations reflect and evaluate the impact of school civic education and on identification the potential stimuli and sources of active civic participation. The results show the minimal influence of school on the current civic attitudes of respondents regardless of their age. From among other possible sources of investigated active citizenship, it was the effect of membership in social organizations and in informal social structures that was assessed as the most significant.
EN
In this article the author tries to reconstruct the historical and political context of the Holocaust education, as well as the forms of its practical implementation in schools. The analysis provides him with a changing perception of Holocaust influenced by the social and political situation in Poland. The Polish historical context has a specific character. Firstly, it is often determined by contradictory tendencies - by the long lasting history of neighbourhood and cohabitation of Poles and Jews and by the history of local resentments and animosities. Secondly, the most important factor is a sense of being a special victim of the World War II developed in the Polish society and at the same time the awareness of being an observer of 'the final solutions of the Jewish question' by the Nazis. The remembrance of the Holocaust and its presence in school education were neutralised by the above mentioned different types of social awareness. The article presents the transformation of the Holocaust perception in school education - starting from its understanding as one of many elements of war crime against the inhabitants of Poland as a whole to understanding it as the singular phenomenon of unparalleled mass extermination of the Jewish nation. Holocaust education, its status in the curricula and in didactical practice is analysed from the perspective of this change. In this considerable point the author reports about my his research programme carried out among teachers. Their aim was to reconstruct the practices in terms of the Holocaust education in public schools in Poland and the pedagogical meaning attributed to this kind of education. The Holocaust education should not be limited to the didactical transfer of remembrance but it should be also associated with the transformation of social awareness and modern civic education.
6
Content available remote OBČIANSKE KOMPETENCIE A VÝCHOVNO-VZDELÁVACÍ PROCES NA ŠKOLÁCH
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EN
The Year 2013 was declared by the representatives of the European Union as the European Year of Citizens. The formation of the European citizenship is an important condition for the exercise of citizens´ rights from all of the EU countries. Slovak Republic took a part in an international research civic education and citizenship education in 2009. The facts showed that the SR is teaching civics productively. Active citizenship and development of critical thinking skills are the main tasks of the educational system and they are related with the problems, which have to be solved especially in relation with an erosion of the values which occur in the consumer society, undermining democracy, incoherence, increasing selfishness and individualism.
EN
The article is a part of considerations associated with civic education – the issue that attracts more and more attention in public debate related to the condition of modern democracy. The attitudes of citizens and citizenship see the individual, in fact the foundation of democracy – the most attractive model in light of changing civilization, as a remedy to the global crisis. The civic education in its formula has been institutionalized in Europe in terms of understanding the modern era of enlightenment of the state. The German model, which was presented in the article, shows a number of differences and the appropriate solutions, which – especially today – are interesting from the Polish point of view. The German education system has evolved since the civil subordinate to the state to shape attitudes oriented towards the civil society. This transformation is particularly interesting for Poland, which – despite two decades after the transformation of political democracy after 1989 – still does not have the functioning system of civic education. The object of research is also interesting because it freed itself from the traditional disciplines of education and upbringing, and became the subject of a wide range of sciences related directly or indirectly to the human being as the subject of changes in the modern world.
EN
This article investigates the role of school-based civic education in the formation of political commitment, motivation and self-efficacy. The article is based on 60 qualitative interviews with university students from the Czech Republic and East and West Germany. Results indicate more favourable perceptions and evaluations of civic education by German students and offer practical recommendations for improving Czech education policy. Civic education has a positive impact particularly on children who were already interested in politics before beginning civic education classes. Apart from civic education, teachers, peers, school climate, organisational membership and family background are crucial factors in political engagement and commitment.
EN
This study explores the lived experience of democratic civic education for middle school students. Grounded in the tradition of hermeneutic phenomenology as guided by Heidegger (1962), Gadamer (1960/2003), Casey (1993), and Levinas (1961/2004), among others, the framework for conducting action-sensitive research, as described by van Manen (2003), guides this inquiry as I endeavour to uncover what it means for students to embody civic education. Twenty-nine students are taped engaging in discussions, debates, simulations, and other civic education. Twelve students self-select to engage in reflective writing and conversations about their experiences. The existential theme of lived body emerges from this inquiry. The importance of embodying one’s learning as well as connecting physically and socially to one’s society is apparent. The students’ learning through their corporeal experience serves to create the civil body politic of the classroom and inform their behaviour outside of the classroom. Insights from this study may inform curriculum theorists and developers, policy-makers, and classroom teachers. Recommendations are made to transform the social studies for students to capitalize on their bodily experiences within the classroom so that they may grow in their role as a citizen. Students may then embody the ideals essential in civic education and democratic societies.
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