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1
Content available remote Kinematic Analysis of Seating Maneuver: Digitalization of Movement in Daily Living
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EN
Purpose. The objective of the present study was to digitally express a common daily movement of sitting down (seating maneuver), and to show an analytical example of normative indices of such a daily movement. Basic procedures. Sequential traces of moments and the center of pressure (COP) during the seating maneuver, approaching with steps to and sitting on a stool, were measured using two force plates, and we decided on normal ranges of parameters based on the vertical moment and lateral deviation of the COP. In addition to the normal data recorded from ten healthy subjects, a data set from a patient was plotted. Main findings. Normative indices to express the sequential movement were obtained. The patient showed abnormal values of the indices, which could be quantitative indicators to evaluate the normality and grade of abnormality. Conclusions. We introduced a method for the quantitative screening of a daily movement using force plates. The results showed normative values, and the method could be used to reveal abnormalities in a daily movement in a patient with mild movement disability.
EN
The aim of this study was to determine how an additional load influences the force-vs-time relationship of the countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ). The participants that took part in the experiment were 18 male university students who played sport recreationally, including regular games of volleyball. They were asked to perform a CMVJ without involving the arms under four conditions: without and with additional loads of 10%, 20%, and 30% of their body weight (BW). The vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) was measured by a force plate. The GRF was used to calculate the durations of the preparatory, braking, and acceleration phases, the total duration of the jump, force impulses during the braking and acceleration phases, average forces during the braking and acceleration phases, and the maximum force of impact at landing. Results were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA. Increasing the additional load prolonged both the braking and acceleration phases of the jump, with statistically significant changes in the duration of the acceleration phase found for an additional load of 20% BW. The magnitude of the force systematically and significantly increased with the additional load. The force impulse during the acceleration phase did not differ significantly between jumps performed with loads of 20% and 30% BW. The results suggest that the optimal additional load for developing explosive strength in vertical jumping ranges from 20% to 30% of BW, with this value varying between individual subjects.
EN
We show that force plate measurements provide a noninvasive method to display the motion of the heart muscle and the subsequent propagation of the pulse wave along aorta and its branches. The aim of this paper is to present a new method to handle multivariate time series obtained by force plate measurements. The proposed technique is subsequently used to display marks of cardiac activity.
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EN
In recent decades, the technological progress has contributed to the development of appliances that significantly improve human life. The biomedical field has benefited more than others from this innovation process. In particular, robotics advances have led to the development of prostheses that allow who suffered the amputation of a lower limb to walk almost like a healthy person. Although sophisticated, the current solutions are not yet able to completely reestablish the function of their biological counterpart. According to authors' opinion this deficiency is principally due to the lack of suitable development and verification methods rather than of appropriate technology resources. Therefore, an innovative bench for testing lower limb prostheses considering working conditions more realistic than those defined by the legislation in force is presented in this paper. The mechanical setup is composed of a 6-axis industrial robot and a custom 2-axis active force plate. The first one is used to replicate the movements of the limb residual segment in space. The second one to load the prosthetic foot both in longitudinal and vertical direction, that is, in the sagittal plane. Both the design choices and the operation procedure are illustrated. Then, a numerical model of the bench is developed in order to assess the merits and the limits of the proposed solution.
PL
Umiejętność wszechstronnej i obiektywnej oceny układu równowagi jest niezbędna do oceny postępów terapii i umiejętności równoważnych w sporcie. Niestety, wciąż bardzo niewiele osób zajmujących się fizjoterapią, leczeniem czy treningiem sportowym posiada wiedzę wystarczającą do przeprowadzenia badań równowagi i ich prawidłowej interpretacji. Celem pracy jest przedstawienie podstawowych pojęć, koncepcji i metod niezbędnych do prowadzenia tego typu badań. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na terminologię, ogólną interpretację sygnałów mierzonych za pomocą platformy sił podczas swobodnego stania oraz na przebieg procedur doświadczalnych.
EN
The ability to assess the postural performance and stability in a comprehensive and objective way is a prerequisite for the evaluation of progress in therapy or to judge about the significance of postural control in sports. However, neither therapists, clinicians, nor athletic trainers have sufficient skills to perform such assessment. The purpose of this paper is to present the basic notions and methods needed to perform such studies. Attention is focused on terminology, the general interpretation of time-series recorded during quiet stance on force plates and on the experimental procedures.
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Content available remote Stabilograficzne stanowisko do badania niemowląt
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PL
Standardowe badanie stabilograficzne wspomaga diagnostykę ośrodkowego układu nerwowego. Dlatego może być również wykorzystane do wykrywania zaburzeń neurorozwojowych niemowląt. W artykule przedstawiono prototypową platformę stabilograficzną przeznaczoną do badań urodzonych przed terminem niemowląt. Omówiono w nim również metody parametryzacji trajektorii posturograficznych uzyskanych podczas badań.
EN
The standard posturographic examination supports the diagnosis of the central nervous system. Therefore, it can also be used to detect infants with neurodevelopmental impairments. The article presents a prototype force plate designed for the premature babies examinations. The parameterization methods of the posturographic trajectories obtained during the tests are also discussed.
EN
Purpose: The shoulder girdle is a complex system, comprised by a kinematic chain and stabilizers. Due to the delicate equilibrium and synchronism between mobility and stability, high external loads may compromise its physiology, increasing the risk of injuries. Thus, this study intends to fully characterize the effects of a rugby tackle on the shoulder’s anatomy and physiology. Methods: For the experimental procedures, a matrix of pressure sensors was used, based on the Teckscan® pressure in-soles, force plates, an isokinetic dynamometer and sEMG (surface electromyography). Results: The anterosuperior region of the shoulder girdle confirmed the highest pressure values during impact (100 kPa to 200 kPa). Also, the right and left feet performed a vertical peak force of 1286 N (1.4 BW) and 1998 N (2.21 BW), respectively. The muscular activity of the shoulder muscles decreased after performing multiple tackles. Conclusions: During a tackle, the clavicle, scapula, trapezius and acromioclavicular joint are the anatomical structures with higher risk of injury. Also, the strike force on the feet decreases for stability purposes. After performing multiple impacts the muscular activity of the trapezius and rotator cuff muscles decreases, which may lead, in the long-term, to instability of the shoulder and inefficiency of the scapulohumeral rhythm.
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Many jumps made in classical and modem ballet are responsible for serious injuries. A pilot experiment that was earned out with two professional dancers measured the temporary character of ground reaction forces in a few chosen elements of classical dance. The method of piezoelectric dynamometry as well as video recording were applied. The results of the experiment concerning the dynamic overloads, which are defined by the value of ground reaction forces, allow us to set the direction of a further research in the area of biomechanical interpretations.
EN
In the paper a way of people identification, based on ground reaction forces during gait, is presented. The authors established that each individual has an unique gait pattern that can be described by quantitative parameters, calculated using measurements coming from the force plates. Fifteen volunteers took part in this study. Each person walked barefoot at least 100 times through 10-m-long walkway with the force plates built in. Determinants were calculated based on vertical and anterior-posterior components of the ground reaction force. The obtained parameters were used as an input matrix of the artificial neural network designed for identification of each person. Effectiveness of the recognition was assessed as root mean square error between expected and obtained output values. It was proved, that human identification based on presented determinants of the gait and artificial neural network is possible at a high level.
EN
The aim of the study was to determine whether it is possible to assess static balance on an unstable surface using center of pressure velocities obtained with a force platform when standing on a wobble board. Methods: The center of pressure velocities were recorded with a force platform within three days (four trials per day) in thirty young adults in three conditions: standing on a rigid surface, compliant surface, and on a wobble board. Reliability of mean velocities of the center of pressure was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients. Relationships between the three conditions were assessed with Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Intra-session reliability was excellent for standing on a rigid surface and on a compliant surface and good for standing on a wobble board. Inter-session reliability was good for all parameters in all conditions, except for poor reliability in the anterior-posterior direction in standing on a wobble board. All correlations between the same parameter in different conditions were statistically significant (P < 0.05), except for velocity of the center of pressure in the anterior-posterior direction between stance on a rigid surface and stance on a wobble board. Conclusions: Centre of pressure velocity parameters obtained with a force plate when standing on a wobble board can provide valuable information about postural stability in unstable conditions.
EN
ackground. Lower limbs performance plays a huge role in the training processes of martial arts, including taekwondo. By monitoring vertical jumps (VJ) lower limb muscular strength can be assessed. However, the force plate, considered the gold standard device to evaluate VJ performance, is expensive and lab-based. The Polar V800 device is able to measure VJ height, and it has become widely popular among trainers and athletes. However, it has not yet been validated for this purpose. Problem and aim. Due to the impracticability of using the force plate, coaches and athletes have been using the Polar V800 in their training routines. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Polar V800 versus force plate measurements to estimate VJ height in taekwondo athletes. Methods. Thirty male national level taekwondo athletes were asked to perform five squat jumps and five countermovement jumps at maximal effort on the force plate while simultaneously wearing the stride sensor connected to the V800. The mean and the highest jump measurements estimated simultaneously by both devices were compared through Pearson’s correlation and Bland-Altman test. Results. Intraday reliability of the V800 was excellent with ICCs ranging from 0.97 to 0.98. There was strong reliability (ICC > 0.97), a low standard error of measurements (0.69 - 0.92 cm), an excellent correlation between methods (r > 0.96), and excellent agreement observed by Bland-Altman analysis. Conclusion. The Polar V800 device is demonstrated to be a valid and reliable tool for the estimation of VJ height.
PL
Tło. Wydajność kończyn dolnych odgrywa ogromną rolę w procesie treningu sztuk walki, w tym taekwondo. Monitorowanie skoków pionowych (VJ) pozwala na ocenę siły mięśni kończyn dolnych. Jednak talerz do treningu siłowego, uważany za złoty standard urządzenia do oceny wydajności VJ, jest kosztowny i działający w warunkach laboratoryjnych. Urządzenie Polar V800 jest w stanie mierzyć wysokość wyskoku VJ i stało się ono bardzo popularne wśród trenerów i sportowców. Jednak nie uzyskało jeszcze zatwierdzenia. Problem i cel. Ze względu na niepraktyczność talerza do treningu siłowego, trenerzy i sportowcy używają urządzenia Polar V800 w swojej rutynie treningowej. W związku z tym, niniejsze badanie miało na celu ocenę ważności i wiarygodności zastosowania urządzenia Polar V800 z pomiarem siłownika do szacowania wysokości skoku pionowego zawodników taekwondo. Metody. Trzydziestu zawodników taekwondo na poziomie klasy narodowej zostało poproszonych o wykonanie pięciu skoków z przysiadu i pięciu skoków z obrotem przy maksymalnym wysiłku na talerzu do treningu siłowego, przy jednoczesnym użyciu czujnika skoku podłączonego do urządzenia V800. Średnie i najwyższe skoki zostały oszacowane jednocześnie przez oba urządzenia i porównane za pomocą korelacji Pearsona i testu Bland-Altmana. Wyniki. Niezawodność śróddzienna V800 była doskonała przy współczynnikach ICC w zakresie od 0,97 do 0,98. Stwierdzono silną wiarygodność (ICC > 0,97), niski błąd standardowy pomiarów (0,69 - 0,9 cm), doskonałą korelację między metodami (r > 0,96) oraz doskonałą zgodność obserwowaną w analizie Bland-Altmana. Wniosek. Urządzenie Polar V800 okazało się być ważnym i wiarygodnym narzędziem do szacowania wysokości skoku pionowego (VJ).
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