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EN
Historians of historiography who seek new possibilities to research the historiographic phenomena believe that the traditional historiography has also become obsolete in its academic form. Th ey think of methods that would allow building a coexistence of the traditional model of historiographic research, which has been simplifi ed to erudite research and presentation of historians – masters with a concept that respects the dynamics of historic thinking, included within the contexts of a political, ideological, and social epoch. Th e latt er task requires from historians of historiography signifi cantly developed professional competences within the scope of sociology, philosophy, and psychology.
EN
The church under the invocation of the Holy Virgin Mary and St James the Apostle, destroyed by the Teutonic Knights in 1331, was soon reconstructed, most likely in a wooden version. Consecrated in 1335, the church existed in this form for over a century, until it was replaced in 1438–1448 by a church built of brick. In 1451 it was decorated with paintings by Jan of Wrocław. In 1551, Rev. Rafał Wargawsk covered the church with roof at his own expense. The 17th century was a period when Szadek was governed by starosts of the Wierzbowski family (coat of arms Jastrzębiec), who treated the church as family necropolis. Lack of repair and conservation caused considerable destruction of the church building. Restoration work was undertaken by Rev. Michał Zdzieniecki in 1788. The year 1802 brought a disaster – a fire destroyed the roof and the tower, only the walls and vaulting remained. A temporary shingle roof prevented a complete destruction of the building. The restoration which took place in 1868 changed the architectural appearance of the church building. Successive repair and restoration works were carried out in 1923–1924 and 1969–1971, but they did not change the outer appearance of the church.
EN
The article deals with the issue of historical research on social activities. This research is a part of the field of scientific activity of Polish social pedagogy, whose creator was Helena Radlińska. This researcher has developed a method of historical research for social pedagogues. It is worthwhile to use this methodological approach in modern scientific research from social pedagogy. Their effects will serve to restore the truth about the past of social activity and its representatives, their scientific and practical achievements. On the other hand, the effects of this research will serve as a signpost for those seeking new solutions for the practice of social activity in the present and future. For social pedagogues, historical research will also be an opportunity to shape their own disciplinary identity.
EN
The study aims to reconstruct land usage at the confluence of Radoľský stream and Kysuca river on the basis of critical historical research of 16th century archival documents, and historical maps from three military mappings (1789, 1823 and 1882). The study uses methodological procedures based on verified historical-geographic, environmental, and historical-landscape methodical analyses. The conclusions were complemented by field research. Digital modelling allowed reconstructions (digital maps) of the land cover to be created, i.e. land use in the given time period.
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Content available remote Dzieje badań zbrodni katyńskiej
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The author has carried out a systematic review and evaluation of selective stages of historical research on Katyń genocide in the last 60 years. He has discussed all the most important texts concerning this issue published both in Poland and abroad basing them in a broad historical and political background. He has analysed largely the Soviet and the socalled people’s democratic countries, Polish People’s Republic’s including first of all, propaganda attempts to conceal the true perpetrators. He has stressed the crucial importance of opening Soviet archives for the Katyń genocide research. He has underlined that many documents essential to recreate the „crime technology” itself, the prisoners’-of-war indoctrination process still remains unavailable.
EN
We propose a historical architectural study of the hypogeum of the church of Sant’Andrea in Akko (Israel), which promoted new reflections on the urban historical fabric and at the same time provided concrete data for a redesign of part of the structure in line with the historical role and the building Hierarchy that made it a cornerstone for navigation and orientation at sea. The discovery of its architectural composition led the design to an extended dimension in addition to the building itself. We intend to propose a violation of contemporary architecture as a daughter of history and not as an assertion of modernity often detached from the context. In this case we try to recover the role and monumentality of the building, the urban context and the sea front.
PL
Artykuł stanowi opis historycznego studium architektonicznego hipogeum kościoła Sant'Andrea w Akko (Izrael), promujący nowe refleksje na temat miejskiej tkanki historycznej i dający konkretne dane do przeprojektowania części konstrukcji zgodnie z historyczną rolą i budową. Odkrycie kompozycji architektonicznej doprowadziło do rozszerzenia projektu poza sam budynek. Proponuje się rozumienie współczesnej architektury jako córki historii, a nie jako twierdzenie o nowoczesności często oderwanej z kontekstu. W tym konkretnym przypadku proponuje się odzyskanie roli i monumentalność budynku w kontekście miejskim i morskim.
EN
Hardwood floodplain forests of lowland rivers in the temperate zone of Europe represent important refugia for biota in the cultural landscape. Most of these habitats that are in near natural state are included in the system of protected areas and ecological networks. This paper presents the results of an innovative method for the assessment of hardwood floodplain forest management strategy. This method is based on combining the analysis of historical development of the forest ecosystem with the growth simulation model of the forest. The method allows us to understand (explain) the current state of the hardwood floodplain forest ecosystem and to predict its future development taking into account the applied forest management strategy. Application of this method is promising especially in protected areas because it allows us to assess the suitability of the chosen strategy that is included in the protected area management plan. The research was conducted in the area of ‘Bahna’ in Litovelské Pomoraví protected landscape area (Czech Republic). The current management strategy applied on the hardwood floodplain forest ecosystem in the study site is based on a strict non-intervention protection regime. Historical research of the forest ecosystem showed that the studied floodplain forest habitat is a relic of coppice with standards system and thus is the result of intensive forest management in the past. Growth simulation model showed that in the future 40 years the assessed management strategy will not lead to significant changes in the structure or diversity of the tree layer. Considering the conservation objectives of the reserve (maintenance of biodiversity and the present character of the forest ecosystem dominated by ash and oak), the current management plan does not require any significant corrections. The presented results can be applied in discussions about optimal management strategies in protected areas containing hardwood floodplain forest ecosystems, which belong to priority natural habitat types in the Natura 2000 network.
PL
Badania historyczne ruin zamków, a następnie prace konserwatorskie - są procesem złożonym i wieloetapowym. W związku z zagrożeniem katastrofą ruin zamku w Sochaczewie Zespół Badań nad Polskim Średniowieczem, wykonał kompleksowe badania (historyczne, architektoniczne, archeologiczne i techniczne) oraz projekty: konserwacji ruin i zagospodarowania otoczenia. Badania prowadzili w 1966 r.: historyk sztuki Izabela Galicka, archeolog Jerzy Piniński i architekt Maria Brykowska (kierownik i autor projektu); konsultował prace prof. Jan Zachwatowicz. Ustalono: poziom użytkowania i spalenia grodu (XIII w. - 7,0 m pod nasypem), relikty zamku gotyckiego (poł. XIV w.) i zamek budowany przez starostę Stanisława Radziejowskiego (przed 1630). Następnie wykonano projekt architektoniczny zabezpieczenia ruin (nie zrealizowany). W 1975-77 r. badania w północnej części zamku wykonał Jerzy Gula, a w latach 2006-2007 ekipa pod kierunkiem Leszka Kajzera – w części południowej i wschodniej; odkryto budynek bramny z czasów starosty Krzysztofa Szydłowieckiego i według źródeł z XVI w. – kilka drewnianych domów. Badania z lat 2011-2013– stanowiły podstawę dotacji UE do realizacji nowego projektu dla celów turystycznych i zabezpieczenia ruin, pod nadzorem konserwatorskim architekta Cezarego Głuszka. W 1966 r. architekt Jarosław Skrzypczyk wykonał projekt otocznie zamku (zrealizowany), a w 2013 r. uporządkowano teren według poprzedniej koncepcji. Wieloletnie doświadczenie w organizacji badań i naukowej interpretacji odkryć, dla ochrony wartości zabytkowej ruiny wraz z terenem – stanowiły podstawę propozycji zmian do „Karty historycznych ruin”.
EN
Historical research on the castles’ ruins and then conservation works, is a complex and multi-stage process. In connection with the threat of the disaster of the ruins of the castle in Sochaczew, the Research Group on the Polish Middle Ages, in 1966 made comprehensive research (historical, architectural, archaeological and technical). The research was carried out by: art historian Izabella Galicka, archaeologist Jerzy Piniński and architect Maria Brykowska (head). It was found: The level of use and burning of the castle (13th c. - 7.0 m), relics of the Gothic castle (mid-14th c.) and the castle built by the starost Stanisław Radziejowski (before 1630) were established. In 1967, arch. M. Brykowska made a conservation project for permanent protection of the ruins (not implemented), and arch. J. Skrzypczyk - a conceptual design of the castle hill surrounding (completed). All work was consulted by prof. Jan Zachwatowicz. In 1975-77, the research in the northern part of the castle was performed by Jerzy Gula, and in the years 2006-2007 the team led by Leszek Kajzer - in the southern and eastern part; a gate building from the times of the starost Krzysztof Szydłowiecki was discovered and, according to sources from the 16th century, other houses were described. Research from 2011-2013 constituted the basis of EU subsidies for the implementation of a new project for tourism purposes and securing ruins, under the supervision of the architect Cezary Głuszek; the surroundings of the hill were also ordered in reference to the concept from 1967. Conclusions from the work at the castle in Sochaczew regarding the organization and methods of research and scientific interpretations of discoveries and design - to protect the value of the historic ruins with the area - formed the basis for proposals for changes to the 'Charter of historical ruins'.
EN
The article focuses on historical aspects and the presentation of selected persons, who have had a key impact on reaching the principle of double-entry from Italy to Poland. It presents the history of the prevalence of the double-entry rule and thus Benedetto Cotrugli’s contribution to science and education in accounting. Cotrugli’s work was a compendium of merchant knowledge necessary to keep accounting books and the same time a basis for science and education in this field. It was Benedetto Cotrugli who made the first theoretical description of the rules of double accounting, exceeding by over 20 years the work of Luca Pacioli, who codified the principles of bookkeeping in his work Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita, published in Venice in 1491. Due to the fact that the article also attempts to present the meaning of Cotrugli’s book (Book on the Art of Trade), already written in 1458, for the history of accountancy in Poland, it also refers to Ambrogio Lerici, as the first Italian who dealt with dissemination of the double-entry rules in Gdańsk.
PL
W artykule skoncentrowano się na aspektach historycznych i przedstawieniu wybranych postaci, które miały kluczowy wpływ na przeniesienie zasady podwójnego zapisu z Włoch do Polski. Przedstawia on historię upowszechnienia reguły podwójnego zapisu i tym samym prezentuje wkład Benedetta Cotrugliego w naukę i edukację w rachunkowości. Dzieło Cotrugliego stanowiło kompendium wiedzy kupieckiej niezbędnej do prowadzenia ksiąg rachunkowych oraz podstawę dla nauki i edukacji w tej dziedzinie. Dokonał on bowiem pierwszego teoretycznego opisu zasad podwójnej księgowości, wyprzedzając o przeszło 20 lat prace Luci Paciolego, który skodyfikował zasady prowadzenia ksiąg rachunkowych w swoim dziele Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita, wydanym w Wenecji w 1491 roku. W artykule podjęto jednocześnie próbę przedstawienia znaczenia głównego dzieła Cotrugliego Księga o sztuce handlu dla historii rachunkowości w Polsce, a także Ambrogio Lerici, jako pierwszego Włocha, który zajmował się rozpowszechnianiem zasad podwójnego zapisu w Gdańsku.
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Content available remote Dokumentacja naukowa niezbędna dla ochrony i konserwacji zabytków architektury
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Progress in IT has created new technical opportunities for documentation of historical monuments, but has not changed scientific requirements concerning documentation. The subject of this paper is diversified documentation of historical monuments necessary for management of cultural heritage protection, covering historical pattern and monumental buildings in towns and conducting of restoration works. The type and scope of documentation depends on the type of monument and the objective to be served; in practice various functions of documentation overlap. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to: the functions of documentation depending on legal means, recording and monuments register and other collections of documentation (including those of archival value) and possibilities of making them available, methods and the scope of elaborating documentation in the scale of urban complexes and cultural landscape (studies, monumental zones in local plans of communes, etc.), methods and principles governing elaboration of documentation of architectural complexes and individual buildings: measurements and results of stratigraphic scientific research (examination of plasters and painted decor, archeological and architectural research) with the aim of carrying out revaluation of historical spatial pattern and structure of a building necessary to work out assumptions for the restoration project. It was proved that on all stages the measurement and scientific research documentation is worked out with the use of surveying methods and digital techniques. In the whole process of elaboration of the measurement and scientific research documentation there are now more possibilities for exchange of information, integration of works and comparing the research results obtained by various specialists, for instance by means of spatial reconstruction models. In the future, digital techniques will be further improved, but the expertise in methods of carrying out measurements and researching of sources and the ability to associate the acquired facts will continue to be decisive for scientific value of the documentation of architectural monuments.
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Since the dawn of the conquest by the Moscow State of the land beyond the Ural Mountains, Polish prisoners of war were being sent there. Mass exiles in the 19th and 20th centuries deep into the Russian land included more than amillion of convicts. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, a large amount of poor rural folk went to Siberia on their own free will. Polish people chose to work there in administration, the army, in education. Therefore, common in commemorative literature martyrological picture of the “Polish Siberia” is simplifi ed. After the 2nd world war Polish communist authorities limited research on the history of Polish diaspora in Russia during the Soviet period. Thanks to Russian (i.a. W. A. Djakow, B.S. Szostakowicz) and Polish (i.a. S. Kieniewicz, W. Śliwowska) historians, the problem of Siberian exile of Poles in the 19th century was constantly raised. Before the fall of the Soviet Union, a large group of historians was formed – Russians and Poles – studying history of the Polish people on the land beyond the Ural Mountains. Within joint research projects, systematic studies and conferences are organised, etc., with participation of historians from the post-Soviet states. “Polish-Siberian Library” is published. So, without negation of tragic fate of exiles to the land beyond the Ural Mountains and other places of deportation, an important contribution of Poles was revealed into development of civilization in places where they stayed (temporarily or permanently) far from their homeland.
EN
The Marian sanctuary in Święta Lipka, in the Masurian Lakeland macroregion, is one of the most famous sacred places in Poland. Pilgrims from Poland and from abroad have been coming here since the Middle Ages. People pray to Our Lady of the miraculous painting. They also listen to music that is played on a baroque pipe organ. In 2018, the sanctuary celebrated important jubilees: the 400th anniversary of the protection of the Polish king Sigismund III Waza over the sanctuary; the 125th anniversary of the music school graduation of the composer Feliks Nowowiejski; the 50th anniversary of the crowning of the image of Our Lady by the Polish Primate, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński and the Archbishop of Kraków, Cardinal Karol Wojtyła. The festive jubilee gave the opportunity to summarize scientific research on the church and monastery of the Jesuits. The author of the bibliography presents what we already know about the sanctuary, and also suggests research areas that have not yet been analyzed by historians.
PL
Sanktuarium maryjne w Świętej Lipce na Mazurach to jedno z najbardziej znanych miejsc pielgrzymkowych w Polsce. Od czasów średniowiecza przybywają tu pielgrzymi z Polski i z krajów sąsiednich, aby modlić się przed słynącym łaskami wizerunkiem Matki Bożej oraz słuchać koncertów muzycznych, które wykonywane są na imponujących organach barokowych. W 2018 roku sanktuarium przeżywało trzy ważne rocznice: 400-lecie oddania Świętej Lipki pod opiekę króla polskiego Zygmunta III Wazy i jego następców, 125-lecie ukończenia świętolipskiej szkoły muzycznej przez Feliksa Nowowiejskiego oraz 50-lecie koronacji obrazu Matki Bożej Świętolipskiej przez prymasa Polski kard. Stefana Wyszyńskiego oraz metropolitę krakowskiego kard. Karola Wojtyłę. Uroczysty jubileusz stworzył okazję do wielu podsumowań w zakresie stanu badań historycznych nad dziejami kościoła i klasztoru jezuitów. Prezentowana bibliografia usiłuje zebrać to, co już wiadomo na temat sanktuarium, oraz próbuje zasugerować obszary badawcze, które jeszcze oczekują na swoich dziejopisów.
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Content available On the Fieldwork in Oral History Research
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EN
The article concerns the problem of a lack of both academic tools as well as a catalogue of basic epistemological objectives that could serve oral history in Poland. It has to be stated, however, that there are already many institutions, conferences and journals, that focus on the issue of oral history. The author proposes some solutions that could improve this methodological gap, based on her own experience in oral history, such as introducing a research diary as a scientific research tool. 
PL
Moja rozprawa jest polemiką z najnowszą książką filozofa edukacji Lecha Witkowskiego, którą poświęcił niewidzialnemu środowisku i rzekomo pedagogice kompletnej Heleny Radlińskiej. Nie można jednak prawie ośmiusetstronicowego dzieła potraktować w kategoriach klasycznej recenzji, gdyż dotyczy ono współczesnej pedagogiki, akademickiego środowiska naukowego oraz metodologii badań tekstów klasyków humanistycznej pedagogiki, którzy już nie mogą osobiście odpowiedzieć na sformułowane przez badacza tezy. Pedagogika polska nie rozliczyła się z fazą swojego istnienia i rozwoju doby totalitaryzmu socjalistycznego, toteż – jak w przypadku filozofa edukacji jako outsidera (w pozytywnym tego słowa znaczeniu) pedagogiki społecznej – może dojść do trafnych z punktu widzenia odczytywania nowych idei, ale i nieodpowiedzialnych ocen dzieł i życia tych, którzy byli następcami wybitnej pedagog społecznej H. Radlińskiej. Autor studium o pedagogice społecznej Heleny Radlińskiej wykonał tytaniczną pracę badawczą dokonując szerokiego, komparatystycznego studium nad literaturą nie tylko okresu jej życia i działalności twórczej. Dokonał jednak zarazem nieuzasadnionej dewastacji myśli wielkich postaci polskiej pedagogiki społecznej pisząc o nich w stylistyce rozprawy sądowniczej, oskarżycielskiej bez znajomości źródeł, bez znajomości obowiązujących w tego typu analizach i ocenach metod badań historycznych. Czeka nas zatem interesująca debata naukowa, która musi być wolna od demagogii i prywatnych frustracji oraz od błędów metodologii badań komparatystycznych współczesnej myśli.
EN
My dissertation is a polemic on the latest book by the philosopher of education Lech Witkowski. The book in question is dedicated to the invisible environment and supposedly to the complete pedagogy of Helena Radlińska. However, one cannot deal with this almost eight hundred page work by means of a classic review as it not only delves into modern pedagogy and scientific academia but also into the research methodologies of renowned authorities in humanistic pedagogy who are unable to respond personally to the arguments presented. Polish pedagogy has not yet come to terms with its phases of inception and development that took place in the heyday of socialist totalitarianism. Consequently – as with a philosopher of education who is an outsider (in a positive sense) to social education– new and relevant interpretations may be arrived at, concerning the lives and achievements of H. Radlińska and of those who were followers of this outstanding social educator, but inappropriate conclusions that are wide of the mark may also be presented. The author of this study into Helena Radlińska’s social pedagogy has produced a titanic work of research by making a broad, comparative study of existing literature that goes beyond covering the period of her life and creative activity. He has, however, also set about the unjustifiable demolition of the thoughts and works of Polish social pedagogy’s great figures, writing about them in a judicial and accusatory style without knowledge of the sources and without knowledge of the historical method required in this kind of analysis and assessment. As a result, an interesting scientific debate awaits us which not must be only be free from demagoguery and private frustration but must also be free from the errors of contemporary thought’s comparative methodology.
EN
A valuable work associated with the output of Raphael is extant in the collection of the Museum of King Jan III's Palace at Wilanów. It constitutes a repetition of The Holy Family, a work by the Urbino master which used to be located in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome and which has been considered lost. The painting, also known as the Madonna del Velo, is now believed to be one and the same as The Holy Family or, as an alternative name, La Madone de Lorette, currently in Musée Condé in Chantilly. The history of Raphael's original is complex and often mysterious. Over a hundred of its copies and variants are known. Enchanted with the beauty of this work, Cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrati (1560-1618), a presbyter of the church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, purchased it in 1591 and allegedly commissioned two copies of it for his brothers. The author added the figure of an angel and a portrait of the cardinal to Raphael's original composition. The links known to have existed between Cardinal Sfondrati and the outstanding Baroque painter Guido Reni (1575-1642), as well as extant drawings and prints, have promoted the conjecture that he might be the author of this exceptional work. However, an exhaustive study of Guido Reni's output and a careful investigation of archive materials in Poland and in Italy are required to determine its authorship. The painting arrived in Wilanów around the middle of the 19th century, when the palace was owned by Count and Countess August Potocki. Four articles pertain to one of the most interesting, and most valuable, paintings in the Wilanów collection, the Madonna del Velo, discussing various issues linked with its history, its study and its conservation. The Wilanów version is particularly interesting because of its high artistic quality and the fact that it shares some stylistic features with works by Raphael considered to be its prototypes. The technological structure of the Wilanów painting and the materials used in its making were investigated in the course of a research project and with the involvement of many scholars representing various areas of expertise. Analyses were conducted which made it possible to describe the board used as the painting surface, the pigments and the binding agents of the painting's layers, which is of considerable importance in further research on the workshop that produced the work. An account of the recent conservation interventions involving this painting is appended to the material.
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