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EN
Wroclaw and Opole were the two biggest Polish cities afflicted by the huge flood of 1997. Research conducted 9 months and 3 years after this disaster (Wroclaw and Opole, respectively), compares the opinions of people who lived in (a) flooded areas, (b) places threatened with flooding which avoided the calamity thanks to inhabitants and rescue teams' heroic struggle, and (c) areas under no threat of flooding due to their location. The research analyzed whether the place of residence influenced perceptions of varied advantages which research participants could perceive as consequences of the flood. Quite surprisingly, it turned out that the perception of interpersonal relations was better in places where the inhabitants struggled against the disaster than in those not threatened by the flood.
EN
The main aim of this article is to present the results of the research carried out on pilots and professional drivers about their tendency to take risks. The studies have explored the relationship between temperamental characteristics, level of optimism and a tendency to take risks in groups of pilots and professional drivers. Moreover, there was an attempt to characterize and compare the two professional groups in terms of the variables tested. The results showed no relationship between the level of optimism and a tendency to take risks in both groups. However, there has been shown associations between temperamental characteristics and a tendency to risky behavior and some significant differences between groups in a range of variables examined. Finding determinants of risk taking is today one of the major issues in the area of transport psychology, among other things, from the viewpoint of increasing the level of safety of travelling and the mobility of people around the world.
EN
The paper studies the literature on the connection between optimism constructs (dispositional optimism, attributional optimism, unrealistic optimism, therapy-specific optimism) and physical health. Most of the reviewed studies find a positive connection between optimism and health indicators. The optimists have less symptoms measured both subjectively and objectively. Optimism is connected to better immune functions (with the exception of the presence of uncontrollable stressors) and a faster rate of recovery. Optimists live longer compared to less optimistic people. There are several factors influencing the positive connection between optimism and health. The optimists have less stressors, evaluate them differently and cope with them differently than pessimists. The level of optimism influences the health behaviour and sickness behaviour. Finally it is possible that a third variable, neuroticism, influences the connection between optimism and health. The article's view is critical and stresses the theoretical and methodological difficulties of the field.
EN
Key words are also characterized from the standpoint of the Slovak researchers; optimism from the research data of I. Sarmany Schuller and quality of life in the concept of one of the authors (D.K.). The presumed positive relation of optimism and quality of life was differentiated in the sample of adolescents of both sexes between 15-20 years (N = 321). Four methods were used: scales of life satisfaction (Diener et al.) and optimism-pessimism (Levy), a transformed Bern questionnaire of well-being (Grob et al.) and a short 'flow' scale (Rheinberg - Vollmayer). Older adolescents showed a lesser satisfaction with life; girls worry more about the health problems and relations with parents, teachers and friends than boys. Flow was continuously experienced only by 25%, frequently experienced by 14%. Several correlation analyses are made accessible.
EN
The beliefs that people hold about themselves, their life and future are important and mutually related constituents of psychological functioning and well-being. In this paper, we investigated the relationship between positive orientation and generalized self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 672 participants aged 15-72 years (274 males). The results confirmed the first hypothesis that positive orientation and generalized self-efficacy constitute two distinct but correlated constructs. The results were confirmed across the three age groups and, contrary to the second hypothesis, age was not confirmed as a moderator of the relationship between positive orientation and self-efficacy.
EN
Envy is the emotion felt towards another person when they have something that one wants to have or a wish that they did not have it. Some authors distinguish malicious and benign forms of envy. The main aim of the presented research was to examine whether envy is related to self-esteem, Schadenfreude, optimism, and rumination. Additionally, the aim was to verify the validity and reliability of the Polish version of the Dispositional Envy Scale (DES), measuring the tendency to feel envy that is close to malicious envy. The participants were 1,221 people aged from 14 to 69. The DES was translated into Polish using the back-translation procedure. The 8-item one-factor DES has good psychometric properties, with a Cronbach’s alpha of .86. The findings show that envy is positively related to Schadenfreude and rumination and negatively to age, self-esteem, and optimism.
EN
The study focuses on the relationship between counterfactual thinking and salutogenic personality characteristics. Using the Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) of a sample of 259 women, the authors distinguish 3 types, representing the links of counterfactual thinking frequency with self-esteem, self-efficacy, reflective dimension of wisdom and optimism. Adaptiveness (usefulness) of counterfactual thinking was studied using the following variable: subjectively evaluated helpfulness of counterfactual thinking in solving future problems. With the application of the CFA, two types were found. The first is represented by the configuration of low helpfulness of counterfactual thinking related to low self-esteem, self-efficacy, reflective dimension of wisdom and optimism; the second has the configuration of high helpfulness of counterfactual thinking related to high self-esteem, self-efficacy, reflective dimension of wisdom and optimism. The second type indicates in particular possible usefulness of counterfactual thinking and emphasizes the need for its study within the personality context, as well as the study of inter-individual differences in counterfactual thinking.
EN
The article starts from the premise that the legitimacy of the post-socialist order is strongly related to its ability to generate a level of happiness among the lower social strata that is not significantly lower than the happiness enjoyed by the privileged social strata. We used three waves of the Slovenian Public Opinion Survey and seven waves of the European Social Survey to explore the hypothesis that the average level of happiness in Slovenia is higher in the post-socialist period than during the socialist period, due to Slovenia’s relative prosperity and new democratic circumstances. World-wide happiness analyses by Inglehart et al. (2008) also addressed the link between levels of life satisfaction and system legitimacy. The authors conclude that society’s level of well-being is intimately related to the legitimacy of the socioeconomic and political system. In addition to examining the general trend, we set out to explore the social distribution of happiness over time, i.e. the happiness (trend) distinguished by two basic social strata. In light of the transition effect, we explored another explanatory factor; namely optimism. In times of rapid social change an important mediating factor for personal happiness is likely to be the perception of future opportunities. Our analysis confirmed that optimism plays an important role in the subjective self-assessments of happiness. With the exception of health, optimism is the strongest predictor of happiness, which suggests that an optimistic outlook does have the potential to compensate for the current lack of material standards among the ‘losers’ of transition. However, during the period of economic recession which began to affect Slovenia in 2009, the gap has shown a peculiar dynamic. Moreover, even with the recent recovery of economic growth and the cessation of the austerity measures law, some of their elements remain in place and they are precisely those that target primarily the middle class.
EN
The aim of the study is to contribute to the explanation of mutual relations between personal need for structure, anxiety, optimism and self-efficacy. The research sample comprised 237 university students (men n = 48 and women n = 189). The following instruments were administered: Personal Need for Structure (PNS), Spielberger’s Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Life Orientation Test - Revised (LOT-R). Significant differences between men and women in their PNS score and its sub-factors – desire for structure and response to the lack of structure – were found. Women showed stronger need for structure and its sub-factors. Personal need for structure and the response to the lack of structure in women was positively correlated with anxiety. The sub-factor desire for structure did not show any relations with the studied characteristics. The results showed a negative relation of personal need for structure with optimism in women and no differences were found in the need for structure and its sub-factors in relation to the degree of self-efficacy.
EN
The study focuses on the role of self-referent beliefs: self-efficacy, self-esteem, hope and optimism in the process of planning to work abroad among students. Seeking work abroad was described as the process of goal completion and explained with the help of goal theories. Initial phases of this process include evalua- tion of the goal, formation of intention to work abroad, and formulation of a plan. Data were collected from 196 Polish students, during the last year before graduation. Structural eąuation modeling showed that self- efficacy, self-esteem and hope play the most important role in the process of seeking work abroad.
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