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Content available remote Plasma-chemical modifications of cellulose for biomedical applications
A 6-carboxycellulose (in medicine known as “oxidized cellulose” or “oxycellulose”) is one of the cellulose derivatives popular in the field of surgery. Health products based on oxidized cellulose are great local hemostatics with unique bactericidal and fully bioabsorbable effects. Traditional process of native cellulose oxidation is described as a complex radical reaction in strong acidic liquid medium doped by toxic nitrous radicals (NO*). Our plasma-chemical reaction demonstrates a new synthesis method of oxidized cellulose with unique bactericidal effect. This plasma-chemical treatment is based on atmospheric plasma discharge in liquid medium leading to the oxidation of polysaccharide molecules resulting in oxycellulose. Final oxycellulose properties were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and carboxyl content determination. The biological impact showed a strong germicidal effect.
Viscose, dialdehyde cellulose and oxidized 6-car-boxycellulose with 2.1 or 6.6wt.% of –COOH groups were prepared. The materials were subsequently functionalized with arginine or chitosan. Both unmodified and biofunctionalized materials were seeded with vascular smooth muscle cells. The morphology of the adhered cells indicated that oxidized 6-carbo-xycellulose with 2.1% content of –COOH groups was the most appropriate of all tested materials for potential use in tissue engineering. The shape of the cells on this material was elongated, which demonstrates adequate adhesion and viability of the cells, while the morphology of the cells on other tested materials was spherical. Moreover, the stability of 6-carboxycellulo-se with 2.1wt.% of –COOH groups in the cell culture environment was optimal, with a tendency to degrade slowly with time. The highest stability was found on the viscose samples, whereas there was very low stability on oxidized 6-carboxycellulose with 6.6 wt. % of –COOH groups, and also on dialdehyde cellulose. Functionalization with arginine or chitosan increased the number of adhered cells on the materials, but not markedly. We did not obtain a significant elevation of the cell population densities with time on the tested samples. These results suggest the possibility of using a cellulose-based material in such tissue engineering applications, where high proliferation activity of cells is not convenient, e.g. reconstruction of the smooth mu-scle cell layer in bioartificial vascular replacements.
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