Viscose, dialdehyde cellulose and oxidized 6-car-boxycellulose with 2.1 or 6.6wt.% of –COOH groups were prepared. The materials were subsequently functionalized with arginine or chitosan. Both unmodified and biofunctionalized materials were seeded with vascular smooth muscle cells. The morphology of the adhered cells indicated that oxidized 6-carbo-xycellulose with 2.1% content of –COOH groups was the most appropriate of all tested materials for potential use in tissue engineering. The shape of the cells on this material was elongated, which demonstrates adequate adhesion and viability of the cells, while the morphology of the cells on other tested materials was spherical. Moreover, the stability of 6-carboxycellulo-se with 2.1wt.% of –COOH groups in the cell culture environment was optimal, with a tendency to degrade slowly with time. The highest stability was found on the viscose samples, whereas there was very low stability on oxidized 6-carboxycellulose with 6.6 wt. % of –COOH groups, and also on dialdehyde cellulose. Functionalization with arginine or chitosan increased the number of adhered cells on the materials, but not markedly. We did not obtain a significant elevation of the cell population densities with time on the tested samples. These results suggest the possibility of using a cellulose-based material in such tissue engineering applications, where high proliferation activity of cells is not convenient, e.g. reconstruction of the smooth mu-scle cell layer in bioartificial vascular replacements.