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Loanwords occur in the recipient's language (in the same way as the native lexis) word-formation foundations for new derivatives. At present, we see more and more often derivatives based on loaned word-formation foundations in their original spelling, having the character of a quotation (traditionally, the word-formation foundation role was generally played by fully-adapted loanwords), which in the case of the languages confronted herein is the proof of the change in their typological structure, too. In general, the increased stream of loanwords nowadays is not without impact on all innovations in word-formation. These innovations in the two confronted languages show an increasingly high degree of variety of derivation techniques applied. This change leads to, in principle, narrowing the range of traditional suffixed word-formation for the benefit of non-suffixal word-formation, mainly compositional and negative or negative-paradigmatic derivation. This also means a decrease in simple derivation frequency, for the benefit of conplex derivation.
The language of the 18th century Catholic writings is given a negative assessment in nearly all the works devoted to the history of the written Lithuanian language. The main reason of such evaluation is a great number of Slavisms found in them. Researchers usually present lists of such loanwords. In this study these lists were reviewed and collated with the lexis of the authors of the 16th and 17th centuries. A more detailed analysis of the Slavisms showed that about 90 per cent of these borrowings had been used by the authors of the two previous centuries. A comparison of the two editions of 'Broma atwerta ing wiecznasti' by M. Alsauskas (in 1753 and 1759) revealed that the loanwords of the first edition were replaced by Lithuanian words in 94 cases in the second edition and a reverse substitution was observed only in four cases. This situation leads to the conclusion that the underlying reason for this prolific use of Slavisms was not merely the spread of the Polish language and the denationalization of the Lithuanian clergy. The author of this article is inclined to believe that a significant factor could have been the desire of the authors of Lithuanian writings to create a church style differing from the spoken everyday language. To this end the eighteenth-century writers profusely used Polish words only adapting them to the rules of Lithuanian grammar.
Legal language belongs to the oldest technical languages. Like other technical languages it is characterized by specific vocabulary. The material our remarks are based on is part of the corpus of the project “Saxon-Magdeburg law as a cultural connecting link between the legal norms of Eastern and Middle Europe” at the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig. This project investigates the spread of the “Saxon Mirror” and the law of Magdeburg in Eastern and Middle Europe. Working on such a topic means considering the results of several fields of knowledge. Within the scope of the German-Polish word comparison of the “Magdeburg judgements” we have mainly asked: How have the words typical for the Saxon-Magdeburg law been adopted into Polish? And which parts have translations, loanwords and explaining paraphrases?
The article describes a method to analyse contemporary Slovak vocabulary with regard to the origin of the words. By using statistical data from a representative corpus of modern written language and etymological information we arrive at reasonably confident estimation of the ratio of loanwords in common Slovak vocabulary and the provenance of lexical borrowings. We demonstrate some of the findings in tables and charts, providing information that is interesting to non-linguistically oriented members of Slovak population (who are sometimes vocal in expressing their attitudes to the perceived amount of loanwords in the Slovak language), but can be also inspiring for further research in philology or linguistics.
The study builds on the article Frequency of Lexical Units of Foreign Origin in Slovak (Garabík – Karčová, 2019) which describes the origins of the most frequent words in Slovak texts and concludes that there is unexpectedly low percentage of loanwords in the sample. Our study analyses their dataset further to explore the relation of the word’s frequency and its probability of being a loanword, discovering that there is an inverse proportion between these two variables. Upon these findings we build the model of the loanword distribution that answers our question articulated in the title of this paper.
Content available remote Postoje k výpůjčkám v soudobé češtině
This article uses empirical data to evaluate Czech perceptions of lexical borrowing, based on a nationwide poll conducted in November 2005 by the Public Opinion Research Centre of the Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The survey combines synchronic and diachronic perspectives, and is the first major study of its kind since Tejnor, October 1970. It broadly concludes that most Czechs accept functionally necessary loanwords, but feel that their language contains a surfeit of peripheral foreign terms, which are used too frequently and somewhat inappropriately. Resistance to lexical innovation from other languages is especially strong amongst the elderly (particularly men) and the less well educated.
The article analyses the morphologically unformed subordinate component in the borrowed compounds and its adaptation in the Bulgarian language (for example 'smartkarta / smart karta' (smart card). As this component is semantically and syntactically dependent, it is examined as a formant. The expanded range of the formant relations highlights the relativity of the borders between compound and syntactic constructions. The essential aspect to be considered is the word-formation relation between stems, which transforms the subordinate component into an inner formant (whereas the additional suffix, or the outer formant, is not binding and is not productive at present moment). However, the formant tends to become a lexeme. Additional suffixes don't take part in the formation of the formant which can be recognized either as a noun or an adjective depending on its syntactic function. Evidence gathered in the course of the research suggests that in the speech patterns including borrowed components used by the younger generation in Bulgaria analytism dominates the lexical and grammatical syncretism of the ancient model of the united lexeme.
The paper presents a lexicographic project of the Italian institution Accademia della Crusca named Osservatorio degli Italianismi nel mondo. The aim of this ambitious lexicographic project is to create a database of Italian words in world languages and to map the state of the Italian language beyond the borders of the Apennine Peninsula. The concrete result of the project is a trilingual dictionary of Italian words in English, German and French. The ambition of the researchers is to extend the dictionary to other languages, including Slovak.
Content available remote „Euročeština“ v lucemburských překladech dokumentů Evropského parlamentu
This article tries to give an answer to a frequently asked question: how (and how much) is contemporary Czech influenced with the processes of European integration? The authors have had recently an opportunity to analyse a great number of official administrative texts that had been translated into Czech (mostly from English) by the members of the group of translators who work in Luxemburg as a service for the European Parliament. This analysis confirmed the conviction of Czech translators in Luxemburg: the main problem is not a great amount of loanwords in Czech but rather an ambition of translators to find always a Czech word (a new 'purism'); and than a highly complicated composition of sentences.
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