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1
Content available remote Czego można nauczyć się od artystów w dziedzinie rozwoju kultury?
100%
Filo-Sofija
|
2007
|
tom 7
|
nr 7
111-120
EN
In the article I endeavour to reconstruct the notion of culture given by Friedrich Schiller in the eighteenth century – the time when “culture” meant the same as “etiquette” or “politeness”. Schiller understands culture as a certain capability of inhibition of anarchy of animal drives and of tyranny of human reason. Thus culture is a necessary condition of preserving one’s freedom as well as of respect for freedom of others.
2
Content available remote Immanuel Kant i Fryderyk Schiller o pięknie ludzkiego ciała
100%
Filo-Sofija
|
2005
|
tom 5
|
nr 5
105-123
EN
The essay deals with the question of the beauty of the bodily form, the notion of perfection of the human species and its moral expression as well as with other problems connected with this aspect of aesthetic experience. In the XVIII century the problems were undertaken particularly by Friedrich Schiller, who on the grounds of Kantian aesthetics tried to show the difference between the free and dependant beauty, and between the natural beauty and fine arts, which led him to establish the notions of grace and of dignity as the aesthetic expression of human spirit. The essay is based chiefly on the following works: Schiller’s On Grace and Dignity and Critic of Judgment and Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime by Kant.
EN
Individuality and ideality are the two principles according to which aesthetes yesterday and today interpret art. But individuality must have priority because the systems of ideality, established for instance by Winckelmann and Schiller, produce nothing but lifeless, abstract and uniform figures who represent a concept or the genus. Individuality, on the contrary, is an analogon to nature where everything has its end and sense in itself, and everything must be judged by itself. This is the difference between the figures and works of Shakespeare and those of the idealizing authors. Individuality, however, does not simply mean the imitation of nature; rather it means a well-balanced synthesis of the material and the spiritual in something characteristic. This renders the objection of ugliness invalid, too, because it only pertains to the sensual perception, that is the beginning of perception. Those identifying the beautiful with the ideal are also at risk of insisting on objects which in the course of time lose their novelty and power. The study by the Hungarian aesthete and literary critic Janos Erdelyi, written in 1847, is an important attempt to enforce the principle 'life as it is' in the philosophy of art.
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