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EN
Foreign Direct Investment phenomena is recently taking important place for the Polish economy area. The article presents issues concerning the inflow of foreign direct investment to Poland and the role of foreign investors in the economy. The authors’ suggest possible solutions of encouraging entrepreneurs to invest in Poland.
EN
The aim of our research is to empirically evaluate and analyse the effects of quality of institutions on the level of early-stage entrepreneurial activity, but also the effects on the motivation of individuals to start new businesses and thus to enter into entrepreneurship. Our research focuses on member countries of the European Union, using panel data estimation techniques and targets a period of fifteen years, between 2002 and 2016. The results of our study show that, the level of the total early-stage entrepreneurial activity can be significantly affected by the quality of institutions, and the impact of institutional factors is different depending on the types of entrepreneurial activities analysed. The findings of the study confirm previous findings showing that the economic freedom and the quality of governance are significant predictors of entrepreneurial activity but also of individuals’ motivation to start a business. The results of our empirical investigation could be of interest to policymakers, who should be concerned about identifying and implementing the most appropriate measures to increase the quality of institutions, which should lead to the promotion of entrepreneurship and the development of entrepreneurial activities within a country.
EN
The study presents the characteristics of 'trust economy' based on the findings of interviews conducted among countryside small entrepreneurs. There are three aspects of the issue of trust discussed: The use of written records in entrepreneurial contracts, the interdependency of networks and trust, and the attitude of small entrepreneurs towards banks. Even the written contract does not provide guarantee for the case when the business partner should violate a contract in an economic situation considered as uncertain. They do not trust the administration of justice and/or regard it as low efficiency organizations. The entrepreneurs who know each other very well and belong to the same network are the members of social relations defined by Coleman as closed social structure. Inside that entrepreneurial circle where members are within social sight, giving on credit and money lending is general practice and the agreement on that is often only verbal. The attitude of this group towards banks is negative. The exploitation of social organizations for different from there original function can turn out to be a success or can be a failure. The example for the success is the business based on the trust relationship within the church. On the other hand the effort to exploitation is a failure when in an organization there are too many members with the primary ambition of exploitation. This will not make possible the spontaneous, 'organic' way of production of trust.
4
Content available remote Przedsiębiorcy małego miasta pogranicza polsko-niemieckiego
80%
EN
The owners of enterprises in a small town are characterised in two contexts. First, the entrepreneurs' features (age, sex, education, income) are presented against those of other inhabitants of Krosno Odrzanskie - a small town in the Polish-German borderland. Second, differences regarding the characteristics of social position and opinions on transformation among owners of various-size enterprises are presented. Based on this, the author attempts at specifying whether the entrepreneurs' features suggest their interest in the course of transformational changes (leading, e.g., to political and economical stabilization or the transparency of the law), their enhancement and acceleration. According to the assumed terminology, the emerging, as a result of transformation, of an element of social structure possessing the mentioned features can be regarded as a pro-transformation change. Data used in the analyses presented in the article are mainly taken from opinion polls conducted in the years 2007-2008 in Krosno Odrzanskie.
EN
The paper is based on the results of the authoress' long-term empirical sociological research which started by the project 'Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship after 1989' realised in the second half of the 1990s. She analyses the origins and development of entrepreneurship in Slovakia at macrosocial level. She examines how the entrepreneurs themselves explain the reasons of starting their business. The next part of the paper describes personal background of entrepreneurs and stresses importance of personal orientation towards this kind of activities. The paper also deals with origin and structure of entrepreneurs' community. Since it is truly diverse, it is essential to identify the types of the entrepreneurs and consequently to reconstruct origin and structure of each type. In the last part of the paper the authoress confronts the empirical results with the theories of origin of entrepreneurship in the postsocialist countries.
EN
The contemporary financial crisis was caused by the policy of corporate financial giants, who created virtual financial products that exceeded the actual capacity of the global economy. This paper analyses three conceptions of growth which widely vary in terms of the role of en-trepreneurs in the creation of economic processes. The Solow model of steady state growth sees entrepreneurs as passive recipients of market conditions, their investment decision being dependent on savings. R. Harrod’s and H. Domar’s model highlights the independence of entrepreneurs in the creation of investment demand and, like most post-Keynesian growth models, attaches great importance to the role of investment in the process of steady stateeconomicgrowth. Finally, M. Kalecki describes entrepreneurs as independent creators of both savings and economic growth. On the other hand, he believes that the investment process itself is one of the determinants of un-steady growth. This paper clarifies the role of financial institutions in the creation of crisis in the light of economic growth models. Consequently, the cyclic nature of economic growth triggered by various financial market transactions justifies the regulative role of socio-economic institutions in all of the presented models of economic growth.
EN
The article deals. with the problem of difficult life circumstances of the middle class in Slovakia in 20th century. Comparing the atributes of groups and common values of two professional groups members (entrepreneurs and private vine-growers) in two different towns in Slovakia (Trencin and Modra) the authoresses tried to characterize and describe the main features of social transformation.The submitted study is an attempt to empirically examine the situation at the period of social and post-socialist transformation over the past 15 years. In the focus there are the re-establishment processes concerning small and middle entrepreneurs, namely private vine-growers, studied by a model analysis of both the examined groups and the situations in which they appeared after the nationalisation in 1948, and then after 1989. The main frameworks of the research are the value-systems of these craftsmen and vine-growers, changes of the local community, formation and stability of social strategies and perspectives, legislature and real life in entrepreneurial activities. The authors paid a special attention to the first attempts of individual subjects to start an independent (private) business after 1989, their primary philosophy, strategies and objectives, and a gradual re-evaluation and modification of the goals under the impact of a triad of closely intertwined components of the process: modernisation - transformation - globalisation. Asking questions about the position of the middle classes, namely the social groups of small and middle entrepreneurs and vine-growers in the social structure of the chosen towns, the composition of these groups, their position in the town community, or whether they at all form a social group with some common consciousness, strategies and goals, the authoresses have sought to comprehend their contemporary social and economic position. An analysis and comparison of group value systems cherished by these professional groups before 1948 and then after 1989 reveal dynamism of the relation between the value ideal (the proclamation) and everyday life values (the reality). From the methodological aspect, the study is an attempt to carry out a horizontal comparison - a comparison within a social space: the country, the society, urban environment and historical time are identical, what is different are these two different components of the middle classes at two different towns. Comparing the results of the research the authoresses came to conclusions that both the fates of the groups and the group values and their transformation (emerging from the strategies, goals and everyday behaviour of individual members of both examined groups) exhibit many common as well as different features.
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