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EN
The article presents the anthropological description skeletons of the Corded Ware Culture inhabitants that were discovered in Mistrzejowice. The preserved fragments of skeletons allow to assess that in the feature 29 there was buried an individual at the age at death of adultus-maturus, the sex was not established. The human remains that were found in the feature 125 belonged to a man at the age at death of adultus (25-30 years old) with intra vitam body height of 165-166 cm.
EN
A settlement dated to the Great Moravian period on the right bank of the old Nitra River was a part of a multicultural finding place situated at the south border of Branc village. Four underground shelters, four pit-like farmstead features and three graves were excavated there. In addition to common elements of basic characteristics, differences in types of heating equipment - hearth, stone oven and clay oven - were found in three residential underground shelters. Their inhabitants are assumed to use merits emerging from the chosen type of heating equipment for heating and lighting up the interiors and for cooking as well. A shelter with no heating equipment was probably used for purposes connected with farming and manufacturing. Construction of a shelter's parts over the ground could consist of a roof and timber walls. If there were no walls, a saddlebacked roof rested right on the ground. Subterranean features of different shapes and size were used as a roasting pit, grain storage pit and other storage pits. The grave units excavated were two graves and a deceased individual at the grain storage pit bottom. The graves were not a part of a regular necropolis, since they were scatter about the settlement area. Discovered artefacts are very sporadic and only seven types of finds, among which fragments of pot-shaped vessels are the most numerous, represent them. Information value of this collection of finds is considerably limited and gives no possibility of reliable dating of the settlement that can be hypothetically put to the last third of the 9th cent. This dating corresponds with the number of dwellings and their assumed farming activities. Situating of the features around the area indicates uninterrupted one-phase development of the settlement. Number of permanently inhabitable underground shelters signifies three couples with their descendants could live in the area at the same time. The community could have approximately 15 members. The grain storage pit can support the appraisal, as the grain inside was sufficient for food of the given number of individuals.
EN
During the rescue archaeological works carried out on a multicultural site No 85 in Krakow Mistrzejowice, 6 graves of the Corded Ware Culture were discovered. All these graves were considerably damaged, three of them had the niche construction. Human remains ware preserved only in two features (No 29 and 125). Discovered grave goods allow to connect these burials with Krakow-Sandomierz Corded Ware group and date them to phase IIIb of its development in Malopolska Upland.
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Content available remote NOVÉ BOJOVNICKÉ HROBY DOBY LATÉNSKÉ Z PRAHY
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EN
The article deals with two inhumation graves of warriors from LaTène period discovered in 2008 and 2011 in Prague-Jiviny (cadaster Ruzyně) and Prague-Bubeneč – „Podbaba“ (cadaster Bubeneč). The grave from Bubeneč contained complete weaponry of warrior (sword, spear and a shield), including two brooches. Interesting find is a belt chain used for attaching sword around the waist. It was made using a specific method which has its origin in the Mediterranean world. Chains of this type appear mainly in Celtic graves of north-eastern France. In Bohemia it is probably a unique exemplar which has been published. The Jiviny-grave was equipped only with a sword, poorly preserved belt chain and fragment of spear. Both graves can be dated to the 3rd century BC, to LaTène period stage LTB2 – C1.
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tom 62
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nr 4
505 – 521
EN
The study examines the phenomenon of ancestralization through the grave photo portraits. The aim is to show that although photography in Russian Beringia has its origin in the Soviet practice, the locals have been able to invent their own modes of photography use and incorporate them into the set of specifically local social and religious practices, including the feeding of the spirits and the phenomenon of “return”. The study shows that while photography can preserve memory of the individual person under certain conditions, the collective memory remains heavily dependent on the traditional mechanism. Consequently, photography in Russian Beringia neither effaces, nor deeply transforms the existing practices of commemoration; nevertheless, it enables us to explore the terrains, in which the existing religious phenomena have not been studied before.
EN
In 2009 on the position Piesky in Zohor, dist. Malacky, the cemetery of the Nitra culture was unearthed. It is situated on the sand dune that has been permanently inhabited since the Neolithic. A total of 22 skeletal graves were excavated. Graves in the central part of the cemetery were arranged in a line, in the direction of NE-SW. North and south parts consisted of only few graves. Burial pits had a more or less regular rectangular ground plan with rounded corners, but also oval and elongated shape and trapezoidal ground plan. The largest graves belonged to adults. In two female graves traces of coffins were detected. Graves of boys were oriented in the direction of W-E, one of them in the direction of NE-SW. Women and girls were buried in a crouched position on the left side, while men and boys on the right side. Within the burial rite several particularities have occurred. It is primarily the absence of parts of bodies or whole ske­leton. In one grave lacking a skeleton, beads were found on the bottom of the burial pit. It is remarkable that the absence of parts of bodies or grave disruption is observed only in children´s graves. From the nine identified children´s graves in Zohor, in eight of them skeletons were evidently disrupted, eventually some bones absented. Only in one grave the disrupted body belonged to an adult woman. In connection with disruptions of children´s graves ritual reasons are considered primarily, although it is not excluded that some displacements in a burial pit could have occurred due to activities of animals. Grave inventory represented bone and antler beads, which were placed only in graves of women and girls. Round head ornaments in the shape of a willow leaf were also found only in female graves. At the cemetery a bone awl, chipped stone industry, a semi-finished artefact probably of stone crusher and few pottery shards were also included. To determinate the chronological position of the graves particularly head ornaments in the shape of a willow leaf with a slight central rib contributed. These appear in the burial grounds of the Nitra culture in the earlier stage.
EN
This article discusses the visibility of founders or metal craftsmen in the graves of Early Bronze Age Anatolia (ca. 3000–1950 BC). The examination of relevant burials from the 3rd millennium BC cemeteries in Central and Western Turkey did not produce any assemblages containing diagnostic items like crucibles, cushion stones or other casting equipment, which is noteworthy given the abundance of metalworking features from domestic Early Bronze Age contexts. ‘Showcase’ inventories from Troia or Alaca Höyük, although said to contain metallurgical items, in fact do not support this peculiar type of burial group, which at present seems not to occur in Anatolia.
Vojenská história
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2022
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tom 26
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nr 2
76 - 106
EN
The study introduces lazaretto and frontline war cemeteries in the territory of north-eastern Slovakia, built as a result of the World War I battles. They are a historical phenomenon unparalleled in Slovakia. They are unique mainly in the method of their foundation as well as in high concentration in a relatively small territory. Most of these memorial sites were not completed during the war. Their construction process therefore had to be finished in the interwar period. The newly established Czechoslovak Republic had to deal with this situation due to the commitments resulting from the post-war international peace treaties. The study focuses on the extent to which the Republic succeeded and by what means and procedures, being compiled to a large extent from the knowledge gained from studying primary archival sources, supplemented by known facts, captured in the specialised literature, related to the studied issue.
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Content available remote VEĽKOMORAVSKÉ OBJEKTY Z OPEVNENÉHO SÍDLISKA V MUŽLE-ČENKOVE
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EN
This study brings information about the structure, importance and development of the settlement in the locality Mužla-Čenkov from the 9th to the 10th century situated on the left bank of the Danube River. The finds fund helped to sort out the members of elite from the population, to determine their dwellings and to elucidate their relation to the construction built on the edge of their burial ground. It turned out that the fortification was built later, when the centre was threatened by external enemies. Only at that time the settlement with important economic potential changed into a Great Moravian fortified settlement.
EN
In the years 1968 – 1972 and 1975 A. Ruttkay excavated the medieval and modern-era cemetery of the nobiliary court in Ducové. During the research, 450 pieces of coins from the years 253 to 1859 were found. They are documenting the importance of the settlement in Ducové and its political and economic development. Some of coins in the founded collection at the site are very rare, e. g. a Bohemian silver denarius of Boleslaus II, the duke of Bohemia, from the end of 10th century; three Moravian denarii of bishop Bruno, minted at Olomouc in the 2nd half of 13th century; ten Bavarian broad denarii from the beginning of the 11th century; another Bavarian, Salzburgian and others pfennigs from the 15th century; Austrian pfennigs from the end of 12th century to 15th century. Hungarian coins from the beginning of 11th century to the years 1859 – 1860 are more usual. In Ducové a bigger collection of Arpadian coins from Slovakia dated to the reigning period of the rulers Stephanus I to Andreas II were found as well. They are proving the development of economic relations at the region of the central Váh river basin as well as the trade and other contacts of inhabitants living at this part of Slovakia with wide surroundings. At the same time the coins from Ducové are evidence of an unusual non-christian funeral custom of giving coins to graves. From the total number of 2000 graves, almost 450 contained also coins. This is the biggest collection of coins from graves in Slovakia and one of the utmost in central Europe, too. The Hungarian coins from Ducové give us a possibility to analyse similar groups of coins, e. g. from the time of Andreas I, Ladislaus I, Kolomanus, or Stephanus II, and to observe the legal order – exchange of several types of coins, once or twice to year. The difference between the value of older and younger coins compensated state duty. This order was applied from the 1060s to the 1st third of 14th century. Only few coins from the 14th and 15th centuries have been found at the site, as the local community was not very big. At the 2nd half of 15th century the region was occupied by enemies – the Hussite Brethren, who built a small fortress here. This was the reason why the site was completely abandoned soon. Coins of modern era from Ducové documented the social position of local inhabitants. Only coins of low value – silver and copper denarii, poltura, and copper kreutzers were given to the graves. From this time, only a copper Salzburgian kreutzer from the year 1805 is unusual. The burial place was used to 1860.
EN
The article reflects the ongoing cooperation of the Moravian Slovak Museum in Uherské Hradiště with Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS in Řež by Prague. This time the analysis focused on older collection fund, to which we have only a few reports of finding circumstances. The presented text thus briefly introduces preserved foundations from Velehrad-Dolní Rákoš (depot of tiles and daggers of the type Malé Leváre), from Uherské Hradiště-Sady (graves of the Chłopice-Veselé culture), from Ostrožská Nová Ves (grave findings of Early Bronze Age from multiple places) and from Kunovice (the grave of the Early Bronze Age). These are supplemented by the results of analysis of copper artefacts. Two analytical methods were used for elemental analysis of the samples – X-Ray fluorescence analysis and neutron activation analysis. Both analytical methods were used when the current state of artefact allowed taking subsample for NAA. Unfortunately the state of historical artefacts doesn’t allow giving representative sampling for NAA. The long-term aim of the interdisciplinary cooperation between historians and natural scientists is more detailed knowledge about artefacts (metals in this case) which can lead to better specification of the historical period of artefact origins. Ideally, the hypothesis of the origin of the used raw materials can be confirmed or refuted.
EN
Archaeological textiles belong to uncommon findings in the Central European Area. Thanks to the corrosion processes, some small pieces of textiles with various structures have been preserved on several metal objects from graves from Streda nad Bodrogom until today. The Collection from National Museum contains also three ring-shaped fragments of textile (Inv. No. H1-119016-H1119018) from Streda nad Bodrogom (tomb I - 1/1926). The textiles are in good condition, except of the signs of mechanical damage. The more detailed textile research established the type of the fabric - 'samitum' - weft-faced compound weave. It is a type of silk fabric, employing a main warp, a binding warp, and a weft composed of two or more series of threads, usually of different colours. 'Samitum', which was produced in the Near East, belonged to the imported goods, connected with the social elite.
EN
The article deals with the German and Roman finds from the cemetery of Dunajská Streda. Some finds are known only from the books by J. Eisner and E. Beninger. According to Beninger these finds are from two different localities. The local pharmacist’s, Iván László’s letter with some drawings of the finds dug in 1894 helps us to locate the cemetery and to clarify its chronology. Based on this letter the cemetery was in the confines of Malé Dvorníky, and not in Dunajská Streda. Iván László described seven graves (urn and skeleton graves as well) together with the grave-goods in his letter. Ceramic pots and urns, Roman and German brooches, a Roman bronze vessel, and other objects are amongst the drawn finds. The earliest finds belong to the periods B1b and B1c. These are an Almgren 45 iron brooch, an Almgren 68 strong profiled brooch, and a fragment of an Almgren 236 brooch. To the periods B1c and B2 belong some ceramic urns, an Eggers 155 bronze casserole, a trumpet brooch, an Almgren V/2 iron brooch, and strap mountings from drinking-horns. A bowl, a Barbarian imitation of a ‘Faltenbecher’, and two urns are from the 3rd century (period C2). To the C3 period belong a ceramic pottery, a bowl, a bead, and an Almgren group VI brooch. On the basis of the grave-goods the cemetery was opened in the first half of the 1st cent. A. D. and was used to the mid-2nd cent. A. D. It was reopened in the 3rd cent. A part of the urn and skeleton graves are certainly from the early Roman period, but some of the graves are burials from the 3rd – 4th cent. From the point of view of the burial rituals and the finds the cemetery of “Dunajská Streda”/Malé Dvorníky is related to the cemeteries of South-West Slovakia (Abrahám, Kostolná pri Dunaji, Sládkovičovo), but only the cemetery of “Dunajská Streda”/Malé Dvorníky was reopened in the late Roman period. This cemetery was used by the Quadi, a smaller Germanic tribe settled on the Žitný ostrov already in the early of the 1st cent. A. D.
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Content available remote POHREBISKÁ Z DOBY LATÉNSKEJ NA SLOVENSKU. STAV BÁDANIA
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EN
In comparison with settlements finds, more attention was paid in Slovakia to cemeteries or single graves of the La Tene period, but newer evidence of sites of this character from all over Slovakia is still absent. The article deals with the mapping of La Tene period burial findings in the territory of Slovakia. Until now, we have registered 120 locations with evidence of burial in the La Tene period. The presentation of the development and present state of research (processing and publishing) is also an important part of this paper. The focus will be put also on the chronological and geographical aspect of this problematic.
EN
The study presents results from analysis of funeral rite evolution at Celtic flat burial grounds in the territory of South-western, South-central and Eastern Slovakia (32 necropolises, 462 dated grave units). It selected burial grounds from the Lower Austria (Pottenbrunn), Transdanubia (Almasfuzito, Magyarszerdahely-Homoki dulo, Rezi-Rezicseri) and from the Tisa basin (Bodroghalom, Kiskotaj-Kultelkek, Muhi-Kocsmadomb) within the total of 220 graves. Statistical and comparative analyses were used for evaluation of the burial rite evolution and chronology of their expressions. Chronological frame of the work is representing by the Early and Middle La Tene period within the LTB1, LTB2 and LTC1 stages, with the absolute chronology ranging between the years 380-180 BC. The funeral rite development was analysed by five categories: 1 - graves representation by funeral rite and grave inventory character; 2 - grave pit shape and arrangement; 3 - treating with the deceased's grave inventory; 4 - way of arranging of cremated remains in grave; 5 - position of grave inventory toward cremated bones. Based on the analysis results, the funeral rite evolution was evaluated within four time intervals: 1 - early and middle phase of the LTB1 stage (cremation presented in the territory of the Lower Austria in the Early La Tene A stage and in Transdanubia); 2 - end of the LTB1 stage and the LTB1/B2 transitional horizon (occurrence of the first cremation burial in the territory of Slovakia - necropolis at Male Kosihy with the earliest cremation burials in the Slovak territory; cremation graves appear in Eastern Slovakia and the Tisa basin as well, where the Celts were contacted with the Vekerzug population, what is proved by cremation burials with mixed Celtic-Vekerzug inventory); 3 - the LTB2 stage up to the LTB2/C1 transitional horizon (transition to cremation and increasing number of cremation graves also at another burial grounds; shifting of occurrence of cremation burial westwards to the space between the lower Hron and Zitava river; partial abandoning the rigorous cremation rite at necropolises with cremation graves since this period); 4 - the LTC1 stage (cremation rite is present almost at each burial site; majority of grave inventories include undamaged artefacts; the strict cremation rite survives mainly in the south of Central Slovakia, in Eastern Slovakia and in the Tisa river basin; proportion of inhumation and cremation graves is almost even, what can be stated the true bi-rituality in the period under study).
EN
In his article, the author dealt with debatable ways of depositions of the early medieval spears, lances, and javelins (thrusting pole arms) in graves from the Carpathian Basin. The time frame of the article is, in the given region, connected with the period of the Avar Khaganate, then with the 9th century and finally the period of the 10th – 11th centuries. Martin Husár identified the following ways of spears, lances, or javelins’ depositions in the aforementioned graves as debatable or questionable: the sticking into walls of a grave pit, oblique deposition over and under the deceased or a dead horse, deposition within a wooden construction or outside of it, deposition on or under a wooden construction, horizontal deposition in the filling of a grave, vertical sticking into the filling and the bottom of a grave, possible killing of a horse by a thrusting pole weapon deposited in a grave and the deposition of a deformed or broken head of a thrusting pole weapon. It can be stated that only during the period of the Avar Khaganate, all eight abovementioned ways of depositions were carried out.
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(Title in Slovak - 'Ziarove pohrebisko vychodohalstatskej a vekerzugskej kultury v Novych Zamkoch. Prispevok k pohrebiskam doby halstatskej vo vychodoalpsko-zadunaskej oblasti'). The study presents the burial ground of the Early Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age (the Hallstatt Period) that was excavated in 1957-1958. From the total of 38 graves 29 were cremation burials of the Hallstatt period. The greater part of the necropolis were graves of the Eastern Hallstatt culture (Hallstatt culture of the central and north-eastern Transdanubian), fewer graves belong to the Vekerzug culture. Solving of the problem concerning chronological development was based on individual vessels or whole pottery sets found in one grave. Pottery was dominant in funeral ritual on the necropolis at Nove Zamky. Bronze and iron artefacts were found only in small numbers, but because of their over-regional importance they are as relevant source of information as pottery is and they became a decisive criterion for dating. The oldest graves are dated to the Early Hallstatt period (HC), i. e. to the 8th century BC. In that time it was a complex cultural process, which reflected the continuity of local traditions of the Late Bronze Age (the mid-Danubian and South-Eastern Urnfields and the Lusatian culture as well) and at the same time was formed also under the remarkable influence of the Mezocsat culture that had been spread to the territory of south-western Slovakia from the region of the northern Tisa basin during the 9th and at the beginning of the 8th centuries BC. The pottery typological analysis proved five time periods at the necropolis unambiguously. The phases I to IV are presented by graves of the Eastern Hallstatt culture; while the phase IV represents the transition period to the Vekerzug culture, which is presented in the phase V. In that time grave inventory structure underwent noticeable changes with its focus in the Late Hallstatt period (HD), i. e. to the 6th century BC. The period of cultural transformation was characterised by mixed grave inventory, in which surviving pottery shapes of the Eastern Hallstatt period were remarkable part.
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