In the present study, the author seeks to explore features peculiar to spoken language in Czech schools. For this purpose, the system of stylistic classification of linguistic items proposed by J. Homoláč and K. Mrázková is used. This system is based on an understanding of the Czech language situation as consisting of two basic sets of communicative situations: (1) everyday communication and (2) the realization of higher communicative aims. Data for the present study comprised 31 audio-recordings of classes in grades 6–9 conducted in Czech schools: the participants were 4 teachers and their pupils (aged 11–15). This material was described using the following criteria: (1) everyday communication or institutional communication, (2) the position of the linguistic item on the axis of high, medium and low style, (3) expressiveness of the linguistic item, (4) typically Bohemian or Moravian use. The analysis shows that the stylistic classification of linguistic items in these spoken texts should reflect criteria derived from the description of communication situations rather than their link to structural varieties of Czech (Standard Czech or Common Czech).
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The goal of this review is to look up research studies, that have by using the functional or electrophysiological methods investigated the activation of cortical parts of brain during reading or narrating a story (narrative or discourse), and by using reviews give the overview of the results which the selected works achieved. The first part of the report is devoted to the contemporary children reading in educational contexts in literary education. In the second part an overview of research studies mapping the activation of cortical parts of the brain during the process of reading and the understanding of narrative/discourse is provided. As a source of data, the following databases were used (2007–2012): Medline, Bibliomedica, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar. 16 studies were included in the analysis. It has come to light, that the identified works considered the specifics of pubescent and prepubescent readers only in few isolated cases, yet in spite of that, gave extensive overview about the options that can be used to clarify the mechanisms of the process of reading a narrative text on the level of cortical activation of the brain. Sixteen research studies were included in the analysis. In the evaluated articles, great importance has been given to the research of activity of brain parts/hemispheres in the process of construction of the so called situational models (during the segmentation of the narrative into individual parts/events) and defining contrasts that characterize neural correlates of inferential processes.