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Study aim: To assess the level of self-handicapping tendency, competitive anxiety (trait) and social support within groups of young male and female athletes, as well as to determine the relationships between those variables.Material and methods: A group of 75 athletes (46 male football players and 29 female volleyball players) from Sport Mastery School in Łódź, aged 16 - 19 years, participated in the study. Three questionnaires were administered: Anticipative Strategy of Self-Esteem Protection Scale (ASO) to measure self-handicapping tendency, Social Support Scale (SWS) and Reactions to Competition (RnW), in order to measure the competition-related anxiety (trait).Results: Female athletes attained significantly higher scores in ASO and RnW while male players perceived their social support higher than girls. No significant correlations between self-handicapping and anxiety were found. Most of the observed relationships between self-handicapping and social support were negative, like those between anxiety and social support.Conclusions: It is advisable to work with young athletes on eliminating self-handicapping activities and replacing them with other, more efficient, ways of coping with anxiety. Social support (adequate to the athlete's needs) might be crucial in that proceeding. The hypothesis of relationship between sport competitive anxiety and self-handicapping was not confirmed, maybe due to the relatively small number of subjects.
Content available remote External and internal sport motivations of young adults
Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults.Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17 - 19 years, participated in the study. An ad hoc questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and health + sportsman-like attitude, and hedonistic.Results: Competition, contest, victory and beating own benchmark were the important factors for male students. The female students preferred external adequacy and others' opinion. They believed in the importance of healthy living, physical strength and sports give them better appearance. The motivational factors had more importance amongst active than inactive youths. Young active students believed that sport performance would guide them to success.Conclusions: It is important to keep healthy lifestyle and sport motivation before teenage years since it is a guidance to preserve the health and adequate personality development.
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