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EN
The major role in contemporary sociology belongs to the issue of autobiography and the so-called biographical method, understood variously. There is a development of research on history of life based on both subjective and objective sources. Professor Szczepanski applies both these ways. The authoress focuses on his works on the course of life, based on scholarly research results, but also on his personal reflections, his own experience and common knowledge. This is what there is to be found in 'Sprawy ludzkie' (1978) (Human Issues) and 'O indywidualnosci' (1988) (On Individuality).
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Content available remote KU GENÉZE AUTOBIOGRAFICKÉHO GESTA V LITERÁRNOM DISKURZE
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tom 3 (20)
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nr 2
19 – 27
EN
The paper studies the theoretical and literary-historical aspect of autobiographical writing, drawing from French theories. It attempts to define the character and content of the concept of autobiographical writing, deals with the problematic of authorial subject, touches upon the problem of historiography, genre characteristics and reception. It briefly describes the development of autobiography in the last two decades.
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tom 44
129-152
EN
Approximately 16,000 people left Estonia during 1924-1938. Among the new destinations, the most important ones were South American countries, especially Argentina and Brazil. At the time, Argentina was an attractive destination for immigrants. In the first half of the 20th century, Argentina surpassed the majority of European countries with regard to the income per capita, health care and education. The first larger group of Estonians (30-50 people) arrived in Argentina in 1924. In each following year, the number of Estonian immigrants fluctuated between 40 and 60, so that by 1930, about 300-350 Estonians lived in Argentina, mostly in the capital Buenos Aires. The current article examines, on one hand, the relationship between (external) environmental conditions of migration and (internal) personal migration related decisions. On the other hand, the micro level of migration is analysed through a biographical narrative, particularly focusing on the impact of personal migration and the adaptation story on the retrospective autobiography. The micro level of migration is observed mainly on the basis of an autobiographical novel by Raimund Podder. His earlier written travelogue, and the letters and surveys of other Estonian settlers in Argentina offer opportunities for substantial comparisons. Text examples from the writings of R. Podder, presented in this article, are inclined to give evidence of a typical voluntary labour migrant: young, unmarried man, whose first phases of adaptation pass without obstacles. However, some background information allows the conclusion that the orientation phase of the adaptation was not without conflicting moments which could leave a nostalgic stamp on the retrospective analysis of his personal life.
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2015
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tom 62
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nr 6
469 – 484
EN
Alta Vášová returned to her literary roots in the mid-1990s. The paper deals with the expert reading, analysis of and comments on the proses that she included in her book titled Ostrovy nepamäti (The Islands of Non-Memory, 2008) overlapping with her later books Sfarbenia (Colorations, 2011) and Menoslov (The Name List, 2014). The paper is an attempt at identifying the particularity of the writer´s biographical writing, focus on detail and fragment as meaningful parts of the whole message in the original autobiographical writing. A part included in the paper is a reflection on stylistic possibilities of non-pragmatic narrative, which eliminates the borders between the author, the narrator and the genre in favour of new text strategies.
EN
A theoretical commentary to the famous definition of 'self-fiction' (also referred to as 'auto-fiction'). The author analyses his own novel 'Fils', drawing our attention to the point at which the autobiographical project collapses whilst the subject spinning out a narrative about himself gets transferred into a self-fiction register, under the pressure of language.
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tom 58
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nr 6
522 – 537
EN
The aim of study is to analyse essential poet logical aspect of Jan Francisci’s autobiography. Already published source materials and narratological and historiographical secondary literature were used in the process of composing the study. It is mainly focused on the problem of vague genre status of the text in which structure autobiographical and historiographical narrative strategies are alternating. The most substantial issue is the transformation process of historiographical techniques into the text with autographical frameworks and the technique of modification of historiographical perspective into subjective (autobiographical) form in this type of texts. Interpretations which explain subject matter and topic of this text result from the problem mentioned above. The second substantial problem is subjects capturing and its role in the text since it is one of the crucial categories with respect to genre. According to the analyses mentioned in the study the subject captured in Vlastný životopis (My Autobiography) appears peripheral, de-psychologized, without adequate individual attributes and thus as a subject without a concept of autonomous identity. Peripheral status of subject in Francisci’s Autobiography is closely related to predominant historical and social context which represents main story line of thinking. Considering this fact we would like to imply the question whether the structure of the text is not closer to memoirs than to autobiography. Besides these the study touches upon a category of narrator, his competency and position in relation to the reader.
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Content available remote ŽIVOT, KTERÝ SE STAL ROMÁNEM: AUTOFIKČNÍ ŽIVOTOPISY OTY FILIPA
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EN
The article examines the Czech author Ota Filip’s auto-fictional texts Sedmý životopis (The seventh autobiography, 2000) and Osmý čili nedokončený životopis (The eighth or unfinished autobiography, 2007) in the intersection of several contexts. Based on archival research of Filip’s estate, it reconstructs their complex genesis and examines the factors that influenced their final edition, as well as the differences between the Czech and German versions of Sedmý životopis. The study analyses the narrative as well as broader textual and paratextual strategies that create the hybrid status of the two “autobiographies” and provide the reader with contradictory instructions: to read the texts as autobiography and/or as fiction. This tension is also investigated with regard to the reception of Filip’s texts. The study further exposes some of Filip’s mystifications and reveals how he uses the porous boundary between fact and fiction to come to terms with his traumas and media scandals, and to create a socially acceptable image of himself. Both autobiographies are also placed in the broader context of Filip’s literary works and contemporary Czech literature.
EN
Texts from the field of autopathography are close to the professional discourse of the medical sciences and offer alternative ways of conceptualizing and thinking about illness. The recent autopathographic works that are analysed in this article describe illnesses that are no longer evaluated as consequences of social developments, as was usually the case in the “new interiority”; rather, pathologies are interpreted as part of an individual life. Since the associated experiences and the consequences of the disease are serious for the individual life, the question of personal identity is often raised. The question of self is always relevant when people who express this question do not know or no longer know who they are (or have become), or when they no longer have a sense of unity. This concerns not only external orders (i.e. uprooting of any kind), but also internal disruption. These insecurities are thus the trigger for questions about identity that are posed in the analysed texts.
EN
The work of Milan Simecka (1930 - 1990) is known in Slovakia predominantly in connection with his activities of a secularly oriented dissent. From the perspective of a literary genre the attention of literary theorists and critics was drawn to his journalism and essayistic, in which his civic attitudes are reflected. Less attention was given to his epistolary - memoir works, where we can identify in significant presence of aesthetic moments. This is what the author of the study wants to stress. Simecka's 'Letters from the prison' (1999) are an object of interpretation.. He wrote them during politically motivated imprisonment in 1981-1982. Simecka's letters are marked by actual life situation - their author had to count with permanent presence of prison censorship and creates his own language and 'substitute' apolitical themes connected with his private life. That is why he works more with metonymy and metaphor and he is more 'artistic' than openly socially -critical, as it is visible in his journalistic and essayistic works from the 70th and 80th. The author of the study refers to the text of Peter Zajac 'Aesthetic as a Life Principal', where this aspect of the works of Simecka was correlated to European philosophical tradition. Thematic pendant to Simecka's letters a German protestant theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer's letters from prison are shown 'On the Way To Freedom' and letters of Václav Havel, published as 'Letters to Olga'. The common experience in the extreme life situation made them connected. They result in the same reaction - creating an alternative reality differently structured from the true one behind the walls of their prison. The study reflects theoretic results of a Czech literary critic J. Lopatka, who in the 80th dealt with autobiographic genres. From the stylistic aspect the author of the study analyses Simecka's letters as a proto-text of 'erziehungsnovel', from the aspect aesthetics and of value he put him into wider Czecho-Slovak literary and philosophic context (V. Havel, L. Vaculik, D. Tatarka, I. Kadlecik, R. Sloboda, K. Kosik, J. Patocka, V. Belohradský). The author of the study compares a philosophical essay 'Letters about the Character of Reality', which is also included into these texts, with Bondy's 'Consolation from Ontology', which is a 'classical' work of Czech philosophical underground. He points out an ecologic measure of Simecka's opinions, rooted in the reforming Marxism of the 60th, as well as in the critic of technocratism in the works of representatives of the Frankfurt School.
EN
The present paper deals with the specific poetics of literary critical writings which were published in Slovak literary samizdat in the late 1980s. They are writings which were published in selected samizdat editions of magazine Fragment K in 1987-89. The set of values of the Slovak dissident community in the area of literary criticism in the period of time in question was mainly formed by Ivan Kadlečík, Milan Šimečka a Martin M. Šimečka. The reviews, glosses, feuilletons feature strong autobiographic elements. The magazine Fragment K also paid attention to the official literary periodicals (especially Literárny týždenník) and reviewed the Soviet film production strongly influenced by Gorbachev´s Perestroika. The scope and character of the magazine, especially the volumes mentioned above, became more and more similar to the standard literary periodical. In spite of the difficult conditions its editors and publishers permanently faced (repressive activities of the State police), the magazine cultivated the space of free literary production.
EN
This article draws attention to the autobiographical remembrance of East German authors in their texts from the new millennium, viewing their autobiographical work through the lens of generational belonging. Using exemplary autobiographical texts, it demonstrates how they (re)construct memories of the East German past, what narrative strategies the authors use, and what their autobiographical texts bring to non-literary discourses. Generational differences are exposed mainly in the use of meta-autobiographical procedures to differing degrees or the integration of documentary media into the process of literary remembrance, as well as in the nature of auto-fiction. Generational affiliation is mainly thematised in the strongly factual texts of the youngest GDR-born authors, often associated with marketable self-staging practices. In contrast to the Aufbaugeneration (literally “build-up generation”) which constructed the new East German society from the ruins of the post-war period, as represented by the deeply self-reflexive, fictional meta-autobiography of Christa Wolf, the autobiographies of young authors rarely reflect the complexity of the processes of remembering. By dealing with one’s own origins and linking one’s individual life story to larger socio-historical and political contexts, the most recent texts of the post-reunification generation in particular come close to autosociobiographies.
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nr 2
104 – 117
EN
The research into spatial categories is enjoying a lot of attention in contemporary literary theory as well as in interdisciplinary research. In the introduction the author of the paper offers an overview of certain theoretical and practical approaches to the phenomenon of town in Central Europe. Then he deals with the autobiographical proses written by Ján Rozner (1922 – 2006), especially the books Noc po fronte (The Night after the Front, 2010) and Výlet na Devín (The Trip to the Devín Castle, 2011). The attention is mainly paid to the analysis of the relationships between: 1.) the literary representation of the urban space 2.) the autobiographical genre and 3.) the writer´s personality. He arrives at the conclusion that in case of J. Rozner´s prosaic work the three theoretical issues are inseparably connected. „Rozner´s“ Bratislava is not only the background in his proses, the space effectively contributes to the way the writer artistically captures the basic subject, which is the relationship between the Central European intellectual and the complicated cultural and political history of the region in the 20th century. J. Rozner uses retrospective narration in order to come to terms with his own problematic past and the literary representation of Bratislava serves as part of the process of intellectual „reanimation“ of the writer in contemporary Slovak culture.
EN
In the recent decades of the 20th century, little interest about empirical authors within modern literary science, has been problematical mainly in Polish literary practice. The author has been returning into Polish literary scholarly reflection by several ways: as a result of an incursion into the literature of paraliterary genres; as bringing the auto-consciousness of the author to present time, which starts the mechanism of mimesis; as a part of meta-fiction. The conception of a biographical triangle by Czerminska (evidence, profession, challenge) is presented on the background of a discussion on functions and conceptions of genealogical studying of literature (Balcerzan, Bartoszynski, Balbus). A characteristic tendency in Polish literature to mark the work of art by the person of the author, which is treated in the conception of presence of the author in a work as a process (not an artefact), has been approached by Zieniewicz as a style of behaving and style of realness, and, for example, presented by Nycz in a more widely conceived biographical discourse. For the authors of the youngest generation the auto/biographical methods of older generations become biographical figures, which are possible to use in diversely conceived situations of narration and metafiction. In the end of the study it is stated that in the Polish literary scholarly reflection different tendencies are present: studying literature in the framework of genealogical systems as well as discursive approach, in which genealogical notions are suppressed.
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nr 1
87-92
EN
The ambiguousness of the genre structure of Bunin's Nobel Prize novel 'The Life of Arsenyev' (1927-1933) is determined by the complexity of its intratextual composition which developed against the background of Russian and West-European modernism as a variant of self-reconstruction and self-representation of the autobiographical subject. Up till now it has remained an open and discussed phenomenon in literary science evoking the creativity of methodological approaches and textual interpretations, which enable the work to be designated as a lyrical-autobiographical confession, phenomenological novel, autobiographical metatext, modern existential autobiography, auto-fiction, auto-reflection, self-identification, as well as 'poema' in prose, fictional autobiography, auto-reminiscence and memoir-novel. The problem of the genre identification of Bunin's text, which is perceived at the boundary between a traditional autobiography and a modern novel, is determined by the central lines of the author's conception of the work. Their basic feature is the ambivalence of the internal text organisation in the sense of: 1.- past – present, 2.- domestic - foreign, 3.- lyrical – epic, 4. - classical - modern, 5.- reality (documentarity) - fiction, which can be analysed in the discourse of the Russian emigrant literature of the first half of the 20th century, when the genre of the artistic autobiography reached a dominant status.
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nr 6
430 – 440
EN
The paper outlines one of the forms of melancholy in the literary discourse of Slovak romanticism. As regards materials, it is based on ego documents by Mikuláš Dohnány (1824 – 1852), in particular his diaries (1850 – 1852) and correspondence (1839 – 1852), as regards research, it is focused on the conflict between the latent (melancholy) and manifested (heroic and messianic) lines of the author´s production. The antagonism between the ideal and the reality forms the basis for M. Dohnány´s life experience and it is also noticeable in his intimate diary records. The subject of the analysis is the performative and functional nature of Dohnány´s diaries, which feature so-called self-disciplining comments prompting the author to take action, to make a difference. Dohnány´s melancholy, which has several romantic characteristics (it is based on negation, inward oriented, attached to the „inner self ”), remains hidden thanks to them and is subject to the self-control mechanism as it does not correspond with the ideal of a „ brave Štúr´s follower“, which Dohnány kept trying to put into practice.
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tom 60
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nr 3
209 – 232
EN
The study deals with the autobiographical writings by the Slovak prose writer Vincent Šikula. It tracks the development and the contemporary transformations of the author´s self-image from the beginning of his career as a writer in the 1960s until the end of his life in 2001. It builds on widely available sources, i.e. Šikula´s non-fiction writings of memoir nature, such as reflections on him and the others, biographical sketches, essays, the answers in interviews, articles and surveys and so on. The author approaches them as a Modern subjective and therefore biased representation. The individual phases of his creative life show that Šikula saw his past and present in different ways. The form of his self-presentation was defined by the inner, in the course of time changing motivations and ambitions that is the efforts to take a certain place in the contemporary literary and public cultural environment, as well as the outer conditions and constraints, which underwent changes, too. Šikula began to create his own „portrait of the artist“ meant for the public as early as he embarked on his career as a writer in the mid-1960s, then in the following two decades he presented his modified version adjusted to the times, and in the period of time after the year 1990 the image became somehow completed and after his death definite. However, none of the depictions of his life in any of the periods of time mentioned contradicts what he had said about himself previously or would say later, the individual versions of him did not rule out the others, although in each of them he placed weight on a different aspect of his writer life.
EN
The article analyses the function of intra- and intertextual references in Ivana Dobrakovová’s first book “Prvá smrť v rodine” (First death in the family, 2009), taking the principle of disintegration as the basic principle of Dobrakovová’s writing. As a result of author’s intra-textual work, the texts transgress the genre of short story and foreground the mono-perspectival narrative consciousness. This in turn leads to a pronounced relativisation of the position of the narrative category of character and to situationally constituted narrative forms as related to the “theme-problem” horizon of the work. Intertextual work, on the other hand, contaminates the mono-perspectival narrative consciousness and in this way disqualifies it. The principle of disintegration leads to an accentuation of the presence of the implied author which in turn makes the text seems more autobiographical. The figure of the implied author (which can never be identified with the empirical writer) is aesthetically productive: although it is fully governed by the poetics of the text, it also allows the readers to evoke the empirical author. The poetics thus creates conditions for ambivalence – the analysed texts can be read both as a fiction and as an autobiography.
EN
Gunter Grass's Book Peeling the Onion created confusion when published in Germany. By writing it the author has revealed that during the Second World War he had been enlisted into the Waffen SS. This is a book oscillating between self therapy and self creation. Grass says he has written an autobiography because he wanted to have the last word, but how should it be understood? On one hand we could assume the reason why Grass has written a book like this was to deal with his past, to get rid of feelings of remorse and guilt that had tormented him. On the other hand it is possible that this book came into being in order to create an image of Grass the way he would like to be seen. This article is an attempt at considering both options.
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nr 5
347-356
EN
The object of the study is a novella 'Prutene kresla' (Basket Chairs, 1963) written by Dominik Tatarka. This novella was published altogether with his other prose 'Demon suhlasu' (Demon of Permission). The Basket Chairs signalised the new and later also characteristic features of Tatarka's auctorial idiolect. After existentially surrealistic beginning and ideologically incorrect continuance Tatarka's prose had been since the end of 50-tieth (from his bi-novella 'Rozhovory bez konca' (Endless Conversations, 1959) influenced by his effort to find his own strategy in creating his message about the contemporary ethic and aesthetic problems. A theme of existence for other person became for him a medium of such message. It meant a voluntary but also spontaneous fellowship, personal involvement in a life and destiny of a neighbour. Since the end of 50-tieth Tatarka's literary works pursued 'hand by hand' with his essays and reportages. In spite of the author's as well as period's limits the novella 'Prutene kresla' connects all mentioned above influences in a good way. Modernity in that text bears a character of self-discovery and self-identification in the existentially vulnerable historical period and as well as in cosmopolite space of later taboo 'western' world. Except of that in a very interesting way the author worked with traditional cliche of a courteousness love epic. In that text Tatarka discovered his typical autobiographic protagonist who became a narrator. It makes the novella quite important in the context of his proses. Tatarka's narrator's stylisation is based on a connection between reminiscent story telling and evocation with exemplary didactic effects.
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tom 60
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nr 4
324 – 342
EN
Building on the stimuli from ontological genre theory and thematology, the study reconstructs the autobiographical line of Martin Kukučín´s work and, in a wider sense, defines the writer´s semiotic gesture present in the whole of his work. The line in question is represented by the marginalized writings, shorter in size and vaguely recognized (sketches, short stories, columns), which were not exposed to interpretation so much. Besides the „children´s“ proses, they include „retrospective“ proses, the sketch Na obecnom salaši (At the Village Sheep Farm, 1887), the novella Vianočné oblátky (Christmas Wafers, 1890), the short story Tichá voda (Quiet Water, 1892), which thematize the motifs of becoming „estranged“ (O. Čepan) or realizing the „bitterness of half-blooded status“ of a man who is a peasant by origin and an intellectual by education. The last group within the autobiographical line comprises the Prague-related proses, which present Kukučín as a confident city author, whose relationship with the environment is very specific. The central motifs of the writings – melancholy and nostalgia – show the situation of the modern era subject, typical of which is an unanchored individual, the loss of support, the disappearing world of the traditional, archaic values, and the response to the intrusion of the modern era into people´s lives. There are various passages and layers of his work where he discloses the defining moment of the essential certainties of human life (family, background, tradition) being undermined, but it is not a catastrophe moment, rather an argument, which also stems from the natural course of events, an argument of life. In conclusion, the analysed texts cast light on the distinctive attitude in Kukučín´s writing style, and definitely prove that he was the kind of author who thematized human existence full of contradictions at the dawn of modern era with confidence. Thematizing lonely feelings, being cut off roots and losing the original world integrity expressed in the motifs of melancholy and nostalgia, which gave rise to his creative activity.
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