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PL
Charakterystyka pastwisk i zalety żywienia pastwiskowego. Systemy użytkowania pastwisk w Europie Zachodniej i zachodzące zmiany i modyfikacje. Efekty gospodarki pastwiskowej.
EN
Characteristics of pastures and advantages of the grazing nutrition. Pasture utilization systems in Westeuropean countries, occurring changes and modifications. Efficiency of the grazing nutrition.
RU
Характеристика пастбищ и преимущества пастбищного кормления. Системы использования пастбищ в западноевропейсвих странах, а также их изменения и модификации, э ффективность пасбищного хозяйства.
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EN
The study has been carried out on the pastures localized on the mineral moderate dry soils in the Experimental Station Chylice in the years 1993-1996. Three different grass and legume mixtures have been tested on the three doses of nitrogen (0, 90, 180 kg of N/ha/year). The yields, botanical and chemical composition, percentage of weeds and stability of yielding have been estimated. Effect of nitrogen was more important for pasture yield than effect of type of mixtures, but the differences between two doses of N (90 and 180) were not significant. The nitrogen caused the decrease of share weeds but also simplification of botanical composition. The economical efficiency of nitrogen fertilization was higher at the lower dose of nitrogen.
RU
Соответствующие исследования проводились в 1983-1984 гг. в штате Мизури в США.Селективность поедания корма фистулированными вычками-кастратами определяли на пастбище обсеянном ежой сборной и лядвенцем обыкновенным, а также ежой сборной и клевером красным. Коэффициент селективности (SR ) исчисляли на основании сравнивания ботанического состава пастбища с актуальным составом диеты определенным микроскопными методами. Лядвенец обыкновенный оказался более стойким в смесях, чем клевер красный, однако его вкусность была хуже, чем клевера. На протяжении пастбищного сезона значение SR для лядвенда обыкновенного постепенно уменьшалось. Весной этот вид поедался охотно животными, тогда как в осенний период он оставлялся ими, а в 1983 г. указанное значение достигало даже отрицательных величин ( SR = -5,3).
EN
The respective investigations were carried out in the state of Missouri (USA). The fodder utilization selectivity by esophageally fistulated steers on a pasture sown with cocksfoot and common bird's-foot trefoil as well as with cocksfoot and red clover was estimated. The selectivity ratio (SR) was calculated by comparison of the botanical composition of pasture sward with actual composition of the diet determined by microscopic methods. Bird's-foot trefoil appeared to be more stable in mixtures than red clover, but the palatability of the former was worse than that of red clover. In the course of the grazing season the SR value for bird's-foot trefoil gradually decreased. In spring this species was eaten willingly by animals, while in autumn it was omitted by them and in 1983 it showed even negative values of SR (-5.3).
13
Content available Europejska Federacja Lakarska - 40 lat dzialalnosci
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EN
The history of the Eropean Grassland Federation (EGF) from its founding in 1963 to 2004 is described. EGF has always played imortant role in grassland science development in Europe. During 40 years of activity 20 General Meetings and 12 Occasional Symposia were organized by EGF in different countries. The paper presents full list of all EGF conferences and meetings with titles and some other useful information. The structure and functions of EGF have changed in 40 years and it has been also shown in the paper. The origins, consitution, role of Executive Committee, General Secretary and Honorary Life Presidents are also describes. The special attention is paid on the Polish participation in EGF activity; number of Polish participants in comparison with total number of participant in following EGF conferences is presented.
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