Discussed is the role of affects and cognition along the road to wisdom. A suitable framework for their reciprocal action is provided by the concept of organicism whose central principle is integration. Attempts to isolate 'pure' cognitive processes are artificial. Cognitions and affects are reciprocally interdependent and are involved in personality activity. The model of wisdom in terms of organicism presumes that active and cognitive development helps man gradually to cope with numerous topical activities and life stressors in adulthood which, in turn, reinforce his cognitive and affective growth. Wisdom enables man to resolve life dilemmas and carry out life decisions, to provide counsel to others, manage and lead the society, achieve an insight into life and seek the meaning of life. A significant role in a study of wisdom is played by relativistic and dialectical thinking. Wisdom prospers in an atmosphere of normal human experiencing, in an acceptance of uncertainty, imperfection and restrictive limits. Wisdom requires adequate spirituality comprising positive phenomena such as love, friendship, tolerance, beauty and sympathy.
Attention is devoted to the prudence as a 'team of virtues'. The stress is laid on eight forms of prudence as long-term memory, ability to the adequately understand existing relationships, openness to advice of the others, brightness, reasonableness, foresight, circumspection, cautiousness. The prudence is oriented to a practical achievement of the personal goals, plans and designs. However, we assume an ability to choose appropriate means to attain the goals. The prudence represents one of the preconditions of a mature and cultivated personality, permitting one to master a suitable concept of life style and primarily to identify means leading to this goal. The prudence asserts itself by refusing the self-regulatory failings and the unjustified temptations. These reflections also imply that the concept prudence bridges over the historically preserved though methodologically unjustified division between a subject's behavior and his personality.
A critical review is made of the present state of research into intelligence. Coming to the forefront of interest is en enframing of intelligence in a wider context of situational and cultural variables. Attention is drawn to the advantage of a more detailed delimitation of the construct of practical intelligence and the possible barriers of its application. Here also belongs the dichotomy of declarative and procedural ideas as also 'well-' and 'ill-defined' problems An analysis is made of cognitive and intellectual styles that permit an optimum interaction between an individual and the social environment. Through the application of mature and dialectical thinking past expectations regarding a striking decrement in advanced age are undergoing a change. A higher usability of the quantitative data on intelligence is made possible by implicit theories on intelligence. The importance of a search for parallel conceptions on intelligence is underlined by data from researches of intelligence in various cultures.
A review is made of cognitive fallacies as statements in which the observer does not register the real situation without being aware of it. Cognitive fallacies arise out of an inadequate acceptance of cognitive claims on the processing of events in everyday life. Fallacies occurring most frequently are genetic fallacies, arguments about people, argumentation through contrition, fallacies of composition, fallacies of false cause, fallacies of inadequate definition, argument from a consensus of nations, argument of 'the cudgel', argument of authority, argument of judgment, argument out of respect, argument out of ignorance, ignorance out of refutation, requirement to meet principles, fallacies of multiple questions, fallacies of ambiguity, amphiboly and the argument of the slippery slope. The discussion bears on the impact of cognitive fallacies on the validity of deductive thinking (particularly in view of meta-deduction).
The essential characteristics of rational, dialectical and critical thinking are defined in relation to wisdom. Thinking influences wisdom through the quality of decision-making in the choice of strategies suitable for solving rather complex and badly defined problems. Rational thinking is closely related to a search for optimum alternatives and should be unbiased and objective. Dialectical thinking refers to knowledge of processes comparing or synthesizing facts, standpoints and opposite viewpoints. Critical thinking activates abilities and strategies that enhance the probability of desirable outputs, where definition of the desirable depends on an individual's varying goals and values. Acceptance of the principles of critical thinking considerably contributes to the regulatory role of wisdom. Critical thinking, together with wisdom, endeavors to bring men to acquire and use information more efficiently not solely in favor of selected groups, but also humanity as a whole.
The study is concerned with effective coping represented by a high level of a sense of coherence SOC - according to Antonovsky and personality orientations or types of personality according to Jung, in a sample of 86 adult males (aged 26-50 yrs) holding lower managerial posts. An analysis is also made of the relation between coping and the level of self-concept. The results bring out a connection between effective coping and preference of the functions E and J in terms of Jung's typology, as also a significant positive relation of the level of SOC to that of self-concept.
This study presents an attempt to approach the personality characteristics of the adolescents and adults with Williams syndrome and those with Down syndrome from the perspective of the Big Five personality dimensions. The parents of 22 individuals with Williams syndrome (age range 14 to 37 years) and 22 individuals with Down syndrome (age range 14 to 38 years) as well as the parents of those from two chronological age- and gender-matched control groups from a nonclinical population completed the FFI-MH questionnaire (author I. Ruisel). The results showed lower openness to the experience in both the Williams syndrome and the Down syndrome groups than in their control groups. The Williams syndrome group was assessed higher on extroversion and neuroticism and lower on conscientiousness than its control group as well as the Down syndrome group. The agreeableness did not differ across groups. The data are discussed within the framework of the results from the previous research.