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Content available remote Přicházeli vhod i nevhod: Vančura a Mukařovský, Vančura a Peroutka
This article deals with the aesthetic views that Vladislav Vančura formulated in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Vančura sympathetically followed the emergence of Prague structuralism and its concepts. The dominant role of the aesthetic function in art met his requirement for “poeticity”, while in Vančura’s works the structuralists found suitable material to support their concepts. Jan Mukařovský wrote about Vančura in a positive light not only in the 1930s and 1940s, but also later on, when Vančura’s works found themselves in potential conflict with the demands of “realism” and “the people”. An example of the reverse case, i.e. a fundamental misunderstanding based on different ideas about literature, can be found in the criticism of Vančura’s novel The Last Judgement by Ferdinand Peroutka.
Content available remote Ve jménu přátelství: Jan Mukařovský o Vladislavu Vančurovi
This study describes the origin and development of the friendship between the literary scholar Jan Mukařovský (1891–1975) and the writer Vladislav Vančura (1891–1942). Mukařovský’s interpretations of Vančura’s literary works are the main focus of the study. Both Mukařovský’s published works and texts that were never published (e.g. university lectures) are analysed. On the basis of archival research, the author of the study proves that Mukařovský analysed Vančura’s work much earlier than he published his first-ever work on Vančura in 1934. In the course of the 1940s to 1960s, Mukařovský published many texts on Vančura in which he remembered Vančura as a friend, poet, Communist and anti-fascist activist.
Content available remote Vladislav Vančura mezi Janem Mukařovským a Lubomírem Doleželem
The work of Vladislav Vančura has attracted the attention of literary theorists from the very beginning. Among other attempts to get a theoretical grip, those offered by Jan Mukařovský and Lubomír Doležel provide us with two different but methodologically connected approaches to the author’s work. These represent two phases of Czech structuralist thought about literature. This study critically compares both approaches and highlights their similarities and dissimilarities.
Content available remote Dvojí pohled Jana Mukařovského na Vančurův román Konec starých časů
The introduction to this study describes the genesis of Vladislav Vančura’s novel The End of the Old Times (1934), which was based on a film script about Baron Munchausen. This is followed by an outline of its critical reception at the time and its historical background. It involves both the phenomenon of emigration from Russia after 1917 and the land reform carried out in Czechoslovakia from 1919 onwards. The core of the study is an analysis of Jan Mukařovský’s study of the novel, published in 1934 in the journal Listy pro umění a kritiku (Art and Criticism) and Mukařovský’s afterword to the fourth edition of The End of the Old Times, published in 1958. The author also considers both analysed texts in the context of the relevant literature.
This paper discusses questions like the irony of history, the lack of illusions, and the prophecy of violence in three classic World War I novels by Jaroslav Hašek, Vladislav Vančura and Józef Wittlin, written in the decades after 1918. The novels have at least three aspects in common: first, the poetics of each is marked in a compressed way by the style of narrating the assassination in Sarajevo in 1918; second, three picaresque figures – Švejk, Řeka and Niewiadomski, respectively – standing in the centre of each novel; and, third, in addition to the war itself, each novel looks proleptically at its consequences, even if the narrated time does not extend to the end of the war. The paper tries to reflect on the novels as the literature of post-imperialist violence. Rhetorical figures of barbarization and self-barbarization, inversion of subject and object, fragmentation of space are particularly significant in the books, demonstrating the aesthetic processing of the reversal from euphoria, over the end of the war, to frustration, over the continuing violence. More specifically, these figures correspond with a remarkable degree with the unfulfilled peace after 1918.
Content available 1929. Rok (nejen) Lazebníka: Poetika, sen, polemika
Drawing its methodological inspiration from A History of New Modernism. Czech Literature, 1905–1923 (2010), this study aims to present the development of Czech literature over the course of a single year: 1929. The objective, however, is not to portray the literary events and literary production of this year in the manner of a chronicle, nor in their entirety, but to capture certain ‘nodal’ characteristics of the imagination and literary language. There is one event that allows the author to take this approach — i.e. to identify themes, images and figures that are typical of the artistic discourse of the period —, namely the publication of Richard Weiner’s The Barber-Surgeon. The themes, motives, and figures found in this text (dream and dream writing, language, failure, literary polemics) constitute a point of departure for grasping the dominant features of a literary period which is otherwise rather amorphous. By virtue of Weiner’s poetics, a thread of sense begins to emerge, and eventually the ‘story’ or ‘drama’ of 1929, out of the re-constructed configurations and correlations of several different literary texts. Through its ‘otherness’, Weiner’s ‘dream poetics’ separated itself from the universalizing aesthetic concept of its time, thus falling ‘out of the picture’ from the perspective of literary history. By contrast, the author considers it as the central feature of a network of relations among a number of texts published in 1929: the short story AM from Jakub Deml’s collection My Purgatory; the poem The New Icarus by Konstantin Biebl; Karel Čapek’s Tales from Two Pockets; Jaroslav Durych’s essay on Poetics; and Vladislav Vančura’s novel The Last Judgement. The themes and figures under consideration here — poetics, dreams, dream writing and literary polemics — are all related to the writer’s self-consciousness in the creative process and the attention paid by the writer to material elements of the work. This manifests itself as an interest in the question of poetics and in a vivid ‘linguistic awareness’, which is also manifested in the widespread interest in questions of language and the culture of language that Czech linguists, especially those associated with the Prague Linguistic Circle, studied in accordance with — and in dialogue with — contemporary trends in modern art.
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