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Content available remote Chemioterapeutyki stosowane w leczeniu nowotworów skóry
Skin cancer is the most often encountered malignant cancer which stands for about 1/3 of all medically confirmed cancers. Number of patients with diagnosed cancer of this type increases annually by 10 to 15%. Skin cancer belongs to the group of malicious in situ cancers, which hardly develops metastasis to other organs. Nevertheless considering the frequency of occurrence and localization, its importance should not be disregarded. The most often occurring skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma (BCC), which stands for about 65-75% of all skin cancers and about 25% of all diagnosed cases of cancer. Second most encountered skin cancer is squa-mous cell carcinoma, which constitutes 20-30% of all skin cancers, while malicious melanoma only 1.5-2%. Oncological surgery and radiotherapy are the most popular treatments of skin cancer, while chemotherapy is less applied. Results of the first two methods are comparable. Differences refer to frequency of occurrence, side effects, treatment and cosmetic effects having influence on the quality of patients' life. Third type of skin cancer - malicious melanoma - belongs to the group of the most aggressive, which hardly undergo treatment. The cytostatic drug being most active in monotherapy of melanoma is decarbazine. Other substances that demonstrate some/partial activity in treatment of malicious melanoma are: temozolomide, cis-platin, carboplatin, vinblastin, vincristine, paclitaxel, docetaxel.
The purpose of this article is to present immunosuppressive and immunostimulating properties of antimicrobial drugs, particularly of antibiotics. Among the former, also known as the adverse effects of these substances on the immune response, the article discusses chemotaxis, lymphocyte transformation, delayed hypersensitivity, antibody production, phagocytosis and the microbial activity of phagocytes. The immunostimulatory effects of antimicrobial drugs, including antibiotics, can occasionally be therapeutically useful, at present in human medicine. In a general sense, immunomodulatory effects of antimicrobial drugs fall into the following categories: stimulation of the inflammatory response, inhibition of the anti-inflammatory response, and promotion of the anti-inflammatory response. The immunomodulatory effects of antibiotics have mainly been shown in vitro or in experiments with laboratory animals. Until now, there has been little evidence from clinical observations, particularly in relation to infectious diseases of domestic animals, that these modulatory actions of antibiotics play a significant role. As far as humans are concerned, the most convincing in this respect are the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides and tetracyclines. Considering the importance of antibiotics that - in addition to their antimicrobial action - would also stimulate the innate and specific immunity in the control of bacterial diseases of animals, further research in this area is needed.
Цель работы состояла в оценке пригодности препарата Linco-Spectin и Lincomix-S в метафилактике инфекционного атрофического ринита (иар). Клинические изменения иар отмечали у ок. 70% выращиваемых свиней в хозяйстве, в котором предприняли исследования. Linco-Spectin S вводили поросятам i.m. на 3, 6 и 12 день жизни в дозе 0,5 мл, а на 21 день в количестве 1 мл. В период 10—100 дней жизни свиньям вводили в корме Lincomix-S в дозе 1000 ppm. Результаты бактериологических исследований доказали, что распространение инфекций палочками Bordetella bronchiseptica (B.b.) было в данной популяции значтельно. Уже на 4 неделе жизни поросят эти микроорганизмы изолировали из носовых полостей 48% подопытных и 70% контрольных животных. Степень распространения инфекций росла в обеих группах свиней при очередных исследованиях. На 8 неделе жизни животных она составляла соответственно 68 и 90%, а на 12 неделе — 70 и 100%. Каждый раз процент подопытных свиней с сильной степенью инфекции В.b. (>100 колоний) был существенно ниже контрольных животных. Принятая процедура ограничила существенно число инфекции и вирулентность штаммов Pasteurella multocida (P.m.). Исследования чувствительности P.m. и В.b. показали, что 100% исследуемых штаммов было чувствительно к Linco-Spectmn S. Процент клинических случаев иар понизили за год от 49 до 5,1%.
The aim of the work was to assess the usefulness of Linco-Spectin and Lincomix-S in the treatment of infectious atrophica rhinitis (IAR). Linco-Spectin-S was administered in pigs intramuscularly at days 3, 6 and 12 of their life in a dose of 0.5 ml and on the 21st day in the amount of 1 ml. In the period from 10 to 100 days the pigs were being given Lincomix-S in a dose of 1000 ppm to feeding stuff. Bacteriological examinations showed that the degree of B. bronchiseptica spreading was high. These bacteria were isolated from 48% of pigs, aged 4 weeks, and from 70% of pigs of the control group. The degree of infection increased the both groups of animals in the subsequent examinations. At the age of 8 weeks the percentage of infection was 68% and 90%, and at the age of 12 weeks — 70% and 100%, respectively. The percentage of experimental pigs infected with high number of bacteria was significantly lower than that in the control group. The applied method limited significantly the number of infections and virulence of Pasteurella multocida strains. The sensitivity test to antibiotics showed that 100% of. P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica strains were sensitive to Linco-Spectin-S. The percentage of clinical cases with IAR was reduced within a year from 49% to 5.1%.
Content available remote Doksorubicyna i jej kompleksy w terapiach nowotworów
Przedstawiono przegląd literaturowy na temat wykorzystania doksorubicyny i jej kompleksów z metalami jako leków w terapii nowotworów.
A review, with 67 refs.
The corpus luteum is an endocrine organ that exhibits extremely rapid growth, development, and regression during the course of each oestrus cycle. At the end of the luteal phase there is an orderly sequence of functional and structural changes in the corpus luteum connected with its regression. This article focuses on selected mechanisms controlling these changes. In these mechanisms, apart from central regulation, the essential role of local monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cells is stressed, as well as intercellular interactions. The research of the last years shows that corpus luteum regression is related to apoptosis. The functional changes that have been initialized by prostaglandin F2 are accompanied by the activation of immunological system cells, which while relieving cytokines work like local regulators in remodeling the corpus luteum. Consequently, metabolic changes, the disappearance of luteal tissue and the final expiration of progesterone production occur.
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