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1
Content available remote The prevalence of injuries in professional Turkish soccer players
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Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season.Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in 2005-2006 season were requested to submit questionnaire reports on all injuries they experienced.Results: About 60% of all injuries pertained to lower extremities, another 25% to upper extremities, the most frequent being skin abrasions (about 24%). The percentage of players who sustained injuries was lowest among mid-field players (about 47%) compared with other categories (nearly 70%) but the average number of injuries per player was highest among them (8.1 vs. about 4.5). The risk of sustaining injury when playing a match amounted to 9.8% for mid-field players; that was significantly (p<0.01) lower (11.7 - 13.0%) than for other categories of players.Conclusions: Football injuries are the major factor affecting players' performance. Thus, appropriate strategies, aimed at reducing injuries, ought to be implemented.
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Content available remote Aggression and fouls in professional football
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Study aim: To assess the frequency, timing, zone and player category of fouls and of aggressive behaviour in professional football.Material and methods: Video recordings of 17 matches played by one team out of 18 of the Turkish Football Super League with all other teams were analysed with the use of observational foul analysis form. The following criteria were considered: time, score of the match, zone, players' position and foul category. The fouls were analysed in 6 periods of a match, 15 min each. Foul location in the football field was analysed in four zones according to player's positions: Defence, Defence mid-zone, Offensive mid-zone and Attack.Results: Eleven out of 17 analyzed matches 11 were won, 3 were lost and 3 were even. A total of 652 fouls were recorded, mean numbers of fouls per match amounting to 24.2, 87.0 and 41.7 in won, lost and even matches, respectively. Most of the fouls (50.8%) were committed by middle zone players mostly in the defensive and offensive middle zones (33.9%). Only 1.2% of all fouls were unintentional, 11% were intentional, hostile, the other ones were intentional, instrumental.Conclusions: The fouls could be attributed to the social learning theory that values the environmental factor in the cognitive process of aggression. The presented results may be of help to football coaches and sport psychologists teaching players how to control aggression and how to play the game wit minimum harm while increasing their performance.
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In 2011 in Egypt and in 2014 in Ukraine, ultras became a fundamental part of the protestthat lead to the change of the government. In Germany, protest of the ultras also becamea public topic at the end of 2012. They rebel against and act called Secure Stadium Experience.We are looking for the reason of their protest. As football is highly related to identity,we stress the theoretical concepts of a struggle for recognition. We would like to show howthey express their protest and how prominent the reasons for their struggle are. Thereforewe analyze three different spheres: official statements, actions, choreographies, and bannersthey show, and finally, how they see themselves.
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The paper presents results of research on the issue of football fans associations in Polandin context of the civil society. The analysis is divided into three areas: (1) the phenomenonof formalizing football supporters groups; (2) activities made by Supporters’ Trusts; (3)the issue of fans motivation to initiate activities that are wider than social role of footballfan. Nowadays, football fans are not only supporters whose role is only limited toattending football games or cheering the players. Groups of football supporters have beeninstitutionalized and professionalized. Fans, especially football fans, organize and formassociations (called Supporter Trusts). Supporter Trusts activities, in addition to dealingwith fans issues, are also invested in a variety of other initiatives such as charity, patrioticor integrative actions.
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Content available remote Core stability of male and female football players
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Study aim: To investigate into core stability measures and to establish the preliminary normal data.Material and methods: Three groups of football players were studied: male players, members of an amateur club (Division IV; n = 20), female players, members of a Division I club (n = 28) and male adolescent club players (n = 17). They were subjected to 4 tests of core stability (muscular endurance of trunk flexors and extensors, and of left and right lateral bridge) at the beginning of the 2009/2010 season.Results: No significant between-group differences were found for trunk flexors endurance. Female players were significantly (p<0.01) superior to both male groups with respect to trunk extensors endurance and inferior with respect to flexors-to-extensors ratio.Conclusions: The results may have practical implications for football training and injury prevention.
PL
In 2011 in Egypt and in 2014 in Ukraine, ultras became a fundamental part of the protestthat lead to the change of the government. In Germany, protest of the ultras also becamea public topic at the end of 2012. They rebel against and act called Secure Stadium Experience.We are looking for the reason of their protest. As football is highly related to identity,we stress the theoretical concepts of a struggle for recognition. We would like to show howthey express their protest and how prominent the reasons for their struggle are. Thereforewe analyze three different spheres: official statements, actions, choreographies, and bannersthey show, and finally, how they see themselves.
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Content available remote Cognitive support in teaching football techniques
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Study aim: To improve the teaching of football techniques by applying cognitive and imagery techniques.Material and methods: Four groups of subjects, n = 32 each, were studied: male and female physical education students aged 20 - 21 years, not engaged previously in football training; male juniors and minors, aged 16 and 13 years, respectively, attending mastery School of Sports (football); their training experience amounted to 6 and 3 years, respectively. Every group was divided into two subgroups (n = 16 each) - control and experimental. All subjects underwent a course consisting of 40 sessions lasting 90 min each, once weekly. Before and at the end of study period the participants were subjected to 3 specific tests assessing their knowledge, motor fitness and game skills.Results: Subjects from all experimental groups achieved significantly (mostly p<0. 001) better results than the respective control groups in all three areas - knowledge, motor fitness and game skills. The levels of acquired knowledge significantly (p<0. 05 - 0. 001) correlated with specific motor fitness and game skills in all groups of subjects.Conclusions: Cognitive approach improves the results teaching football techniques and may serve as a valuable tool in training.
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Study aim: overtraining (OT) has a detrimental effect on sport performance, but it is not clear to what extent it influences physical fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between OT and physical fitness in football players. Material and methods: a sample of semi-professional male football players (n = 124) performed a series of anthropometric and physical fitness measurements, and completed the 54-item OT questionnaire of the French Society of Sports Medicine. Results: the OT score was significantly correlated with sit-and-reach test (SAR; rho = −0.20, p < 0.05), theoretical maximal velocity (v0; rho = −0.23, p < 0.05), theoretical maximal force (F0) of the force-velocity test (F-v test; rho = 0.25, p < 0.01) and mean power (Pmean) in W · kg−1 of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT; rho = −0.20, p < 0.05). The comparison between OT quartiles revealed that the first quartile scored higher than the third quartile in SAR and in v0 (p < 0.05). The fourth quartile scored higher in F0 than the first, second and third quartiles (p < 0.05). The magnitude of these differences among groups was medium. Conclusions: the negative correlations between OT and physical fitness and the highest scores in fitness for the first OT quartile indicate a negative effect of OT on physical fitness (anaerobic capacity, maximal velocity and flexibility) of football players. In addition, because there is very limited prior relevant research on football players’ OT, our data can be used as reference for future research.
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Artykuł podejmuje problematykę stowarzyszeń kibiców piłkarskich w Polsce w kontekściespołeczeństwa obywatelskiego, analizując zjawisko formalizowania się grup kibicowskich,działań przez nie podejmowanych oraz motywacji fanów do formalizowania swoichstosunków z klubami, a także inicjowania działań wykraczających poza rolę kibica na stadionie.Rola dzisiejszych, zaangażowanych kibiców nie sprowadza się już bowiem tylko doprzyjścia na mecz i zagrzewania zawodników do wzmożonego wysiłku. Grupy kibicowskiezinstytucjonalizowały się i sprofesjonalizowały. Kibice, a w szczególności piłkarscy,organizują się i tworzą stowarzyszenia. Działalność stowarzyszeń, oprócz organizowaniażycia kibicowskiego, skupia się również na całej gamie innych inicjatyw, jak działania charytatywne,patriotyczne czy integracyjne.
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Study aim: To assess whether in a special area, such as football, formal thinking may appear as early as at the age of 10 years.Material and methods: In total 50 children divided into three groups took part in the study: 10-year-old football players from the Premier League Team - level 1 (Group 1; n = 22), 10-year-old football players from the Football League Team - level 3 (Group 2; n = 13) and 13-year-old football players from the Premier League Team - level 1 (Group 3; n = 15). With the help of specific motor tests, the kinetic memory, level of thinking and technical level were assessed.Results: The 10-year-old children representing lower levels of football proficiency (Group 2) were significantly (p<0.05) inferior to their mates from the Premier League in both the level of thinking as well as in kinetic memory. No significant differences were found between members of Group 1 and Group 3 in any of the studied variables.Conclusions: The results support the thesis that 10-year-old children are able to use formal thinking in a particular area, such as football. To be aware of this would be of great importance to those experts who deal with selection and talent identification.
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Study aim: to test the hypothesis that an eccentric training programme applied on women football players would reduce the hamstring injury rate by improving thigh muscle balance and, particularly, hamstring strength. Material and methods: three football teams were recruited for this randomised controlled trial. They played in the first and second divisions in Spain. Players were randomised within clubs either to the intervention (eccentric exercises, n = 22) or control (control exercises, n = 21) groups, and randomisation was stratified according to previous history of thigh strains. The eccentric programme was divided into 3 phases, and each phase was composed of 7 weeks. Compliance level and all injuries were recorded throughout the season as well as training and game exposure times. Muscle strength and power of the lower extremities and flexibility of the hamstrings and lower back were measured before and after the intervention. Results: the risk for sustaining a hamstring strain (RSHS) was reduced by 81%. However, differences were not significant due to the low number of subjects (relative risk 0.19; 95% coefficient interval 0.02–1.50). The strength of the hamstrings decreased in both groups (p < 0.05), whereas sprint time was improved only in the intervention group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: the present findings suggest that a simple program of eccentric exercise could reduce RSHS.
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The traditional Czech football club the Bohemians Prague has become famous mainly dueto Antonin Panenka and his victorious penalty kick in the finals of the European Championshipin 1976. Less is known of the club’s Supporters Trust Družstvo fanoušků Bohemians(DFB). The DFB was founded in Match 2005 and saved the club from bankruptcyafter several periods of financial mismanagement. Since then, the DFB’s representativeshave been involved in numerous legal disputes over the club’s traditional identity and inopposition to the proposed relocation away from the traditional Ďolíček stadium. Thiseffort has been accompanied by the joint initiative, along with the fans of their main localrivals, Slavia Prague, to found a political movement which was successful in the lastmunicipal elections. By focusing on the heterogenous supporters’ scene of the BohemiansPrague 1905, this case study provides an empirically informed understanding of supporters’engagement in club governance in the following intertwined areas: financial support,cultural representations, emotional involvement, social networks, politics, and legal expertise.Considering the different levels of Bohemians supporters’ involvement, the followingquestions are raised: What is the role of the DFB in relation to club governance?What is the impact of these activities on club governance? The data that underpins theanalysis is drawn from a variety of primary and secondary sources available online andoffline. Firstly, 10 semi-structured interviews with supporters and football clubs’ officialshave been carried out. Secondly, 5 non-participant observations during social gathering,municipal council meetings, club events and football matches have been carried out.Thirdly, the research is further informed by a documentary analysis of newspaper articles,e-zines, blogs, internet discussions and websites.
PL
Czeski klub piłkarski Bohemians Praga zyskał sławę głównie dzięki piłkarzowi AntonínowiPanence i jego zwycięskim rzucie karnym w finale Mistrzostw Europy w 1976roku. Mniej znany jest kibicowski trust Družstvo fanoušků Bohemians (DFB). Został onufundowany w marcu 2005 roku i umożliwił uchronienie klubu przed bankructwem polatach finansowej niegospodarności. Od tego czasu przedstawiciele DFB są zaangażowaniw liczne dyskusje na temat tożsamości klubu oraz przenosin jego siedziby z tradycyjnegomiejsca, jakim jest stadion Ďolíček. Staraniom kibiców towarzyszyła wspólna inicjatywazawiązana z fanami lokalnego rywala – Slavii Praga – stworzenia ruchu politycznego, którywystartował z sukcesem w lokalnych wyborach.Przez skupienie na heterogenicznej scenie kibicowskiej klubu Bohemians Praga 1905poniższe studium przypadku dostarcza empirycznie ukonstytuowanej wiedzy na tematzaangażowania kibiców w zarządzanie klubem w następujących wymiarach: wsparcia materialnego,kulturowych reprezentacji, zaangażowania emocjonalnego, sieci społecznych,polityki czy prawniczych ekspertyz. Rozważając różnorodne elementy zaangażowaniakibiców, wzięto pod uwagę następujące pytania badawcze: jaka jest rola DFB w kwestiizarządzania klubem? Jaki jest wpływ jego aktywności w tej materii? Dane, które wspierająanalizę pochodzą zarówno ze źródeł wtórnych, jak i pierwotnych. Po pierwsze, przeprowadzono10 częściowo ustrukturyzowanych wywiadów z kibicami i przedstawicielamiklubu. Po drugie, przeprowadzono 5 obserwacji nieuczestniczących podczas społecznychzgromadzeń, spotkań w samorządzie lokalnym, imprez organizowanych przez klub orazmeczów piłkarskich. Po trzecie, badanie zostało uzupełnione analizą treści artykułów prasowych,e-zinów, blogów i internetowych dyskusji
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Tottenham Hotspur football fans are victims of regular antisemitic abuse from opposition fans. They are commonly referred to as “Yids.” Interestingly, Tottenham supporters appropriated the Jewish image and embraced it as part of their fandom identity. They have been using symbols and content associated with Jewish identity, even if their club has never been a Jewish organization, and the vast majority of them are not Jewish. The objective of this paper is to describe and explain the main characteristics of the phenomenon of what I call the “Jewish identity” of the fans. The research presented in this paper was based on sociological and anthropological qualitative methods; above all-in-depth interviews with the fans and participant observation in the stadiums during Tottenham games. The analysis and interpretation of the material collected for the study allowed me to explore the questions of “how,” “why,” and “what” happens in the stadiums (and outside the stadiums) from the perspective of the fans in the context of their “Jewish identity.” I particularly focus on the mechanism Tottenham supporters use to manage and fight stigma and investigate how different groups of fans have created different narratives around Jewish identity to make it meaningful for them.
PL
Cel pracy. Celem badań była ocena zmian poziomu szybkości lokomocyjnej chłopców trenujących piłkę nożną w KS SEMP Ursynów w Warszawie. Diagnozowano statystyczną istotność wyników (wartości średnie) w trzech terminach badań, z uwzględnieniem cech budowy somatycznej badanych chłopców (wysokość i masa ciała). Materiał i metody. W badaniach brała udział grupa 28 zawodników z rocznika 2001 (n=12) oraz 2002 (n=16) trenujących w KS SEMP Ursynów w Warszawie. Przeprowadzono próby biegowe na dystansie 5, 15 oraz 30 m. Badania przeprowadzono trzykrotnie: w grudniu 2013, w czerwcu 2014 oraz w grudniu 2014. Rejestracji czasów dokonywano przy pomocy fotokomórek na boisku ze sztuczną nawierzchnią. Wyniki. Stwierdzono, że zmiany poziomu szybkości lokomocyjnej na wszystkich dystansach pomiędzy pierwszym a drugim i pierwszym a trzecim terminem badań były istotne statystycznie. Pomiędzy drugim a trzecim terminem badań istotny progres zanotowano jedynie dla próby biegu na odcinku 30 m. W wartościach względnych poprawa szybkości lokomocyjnej mieściła się w zakresie 4-6% w stosunku do poziomu wyjściowego. Wyniki na dystansach 5 i 15 m były skorelowane z warunkami somatycznymi badanych, przede wszystkim ich masą ciała. Wnioski. Uzyskane dane dowodzą, że trening szybkości lokomocyjnej piłkarzy w wieku przedpubertalnym daje znaczne efekty. Wraz z wydłużaniem się długości biegu zmniejsza się wpływ masy ciała badanych na wynik biegu, a wzrasta – jak się wydaje – rola techniki biegu oraz koordynacyjnych zdolności motorycznych (rytm, różnicowanie i dostosowanie napięć mięśniowych do potrzeb wysiłku szybkościowego).
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Goal: The aim of the study was evaluation of changes in the level of the speed locomotion boys playing football in the FC SEMP Ursynów in Warsaw. Diagnosed statistical significance of the results (mean values) in three terms of research, taking into account the characteristics of the somatic build surveyed boys (body height and weight). Material and methods: The study involved group of 28 football players in 2001 (n=12) and 2002 (n=16) year of birth playing football in FC SEMP Ursynów in Warsaw. Tests were carried out on a speed distance of 5, 15 and 30 m. The study was conducted three times: in December 2013, in June 2014 and December 2014. Registration times were made using system of photocells on the football court with artificial turf. Results: There were observed statistical significant changes in the locomotion speed at all distances between the first and second and first and third term study. Between the second and the third term research significant progression was only recorded for the test run on the distance of 30 m. In relative speed improvement in the range of 4-6% compared to baseline. Results at distances of 5 and 15 m were correlated with somatic factors, especially with body weight. Conclusions: The data obtained show that the speed training football players in prepubertal aged gives significant results. The longer run distance reduces the effect of body weight in results of the race, and growing - as it seems - the role of run technic and coordination motor abilities (rhythm, differentiation and adaptation of muscle tension to the needs of a high-speed effort).
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