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PL
Spółdzielczość uznawana jest powszechnie za efektywny instrument rozwoju lokalnego, jednak w Polsce i innych krajach postkomunistycznych pozostaje niedoceniana. Mimo dawnych, pozytywnych doświadczeń, rola spółdzielczości w okresie „realnego socjalizmu" sprawiła, iż układ spółdzielczy stał się układem w znacznym stopniu skompromitowanym. Obecnie istnieją szanse odrodzenia spółdzielczości na szczeblu lokalnym - poprzez reorganizację istniejących spółdzielni bądź tworzenie od podstaw nowych. Szczególna rola przypaść może „spółdzielniom alternatywnym", analogicznym do istniejących w niektórych krajach zachodnich. W celu przełamania barier hamujących odnowę spółdzielczości niezbędne jest powstanie zinstytucjonalizowanych organizacji wspierających tworzenie nowych spółdzielni.
EN
This article based on the research performed by the Co-operative Research Institute and on the Polish and foreign literature deals with the role of co-operatives in the formation of local development. This role remains underestimated in post-communist countries. The author presents and describes the definition of the local development pointing out to the most important social processes and phenomena arising in local societies in Poland which exert an influence on this development. He reminds also of the historical role of co-operative forms in the development of the countryside in Poland (among others, the example of Lisków) and presents the processes bringing discredit upon the cooperative idea, under the communist system. On the basis of empiric experiences, the article deals also with objections raised to the co-operatives existing now in the countryside and the author describes some possibilities of either re-organization of these co-operatives or creation of the new ones. Some foreigh experiences of creating „new" or ..alternative" co-operatives (among others, the example of Hus of North Sweden) being, in the opinion of the author, a chance to restore, also in Poland, a proper role of co-operatives in the local development and to bring back the reliance upon co-operatives, in general. Finally, some barriers restraining the development of co-operatives in the countryside and some foreign experiences on the activities of organizations supporting the movement towards foundation of new co-operatives have been considered.
EN
Continuously growing importance of good management forces the co-operatives to adapt their management to the requirements of market economy. The main purpose of the new system is, on one hand to give a say to the member partners of the co-operative and, on the other one, to ensure an efficient management of the co-operatives. Article presents the results of a survey carried out among the managerial staff of Polish co-operatives. The survey focused on the difficulties of introducing managerial system to co-operatives. The main of them are a risk of wasting collective values and principles and also lack the qualifications essential for the people in managers position in co-operatives. The results indicate also that in the transformation period the need for organizing specialist training has been largely neglected. One of problems emerging on this ground is the way of recruitment of new managers for the co-operative movement.
EN
Cooperation in Poland after 1989 has been experiencing a difficult period. On the other hand, in the European Union, besides the economic function, it plays an important social role, as it carries out social and educational and cultural activities for its members and the community. The European Union's cooperation's economic potential is enormous; there are set up international cooperatives, e.g., Danish-Swedish-Finnish cooperative DLG that operates also in Poland.
RU
Кооперация в Польше после 1989 г. переживает тяжелый период, тогда как в Евросоюзе наряду c зкономической функцией она выполняет важную социальную функцию, поскольку она осуществляет общественную и просветительно-культурную деятельность для своих членов и среды. Зкономический потенциал кооперации в Евросоюзе огромньш; создаются международные кооперативы, напр., датско-шведско-финский кооператив DLG, который действует также в Польше.
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EN
This paper deals with problems related with co-operative enterprise in the trade services system for rural areas after 1989, in the market economy. The conclusions base on inquiries carried out in the south-eastern region of Poland in 1989-1994 and on the available literature. An attempt to separate regions, in which co-operatives should come into the agricultural market is made. In addition, chances and directions of renovation of agricultural co-operative are shown.
12
Content available Organizacja sektora spoldzielczego we Francji
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EN
The organizational structure of the co-operative sector in France is elastic, because it has been created by and for the farmers. There is a federation and confederation which represent farmer's businesses and co-operatives and groups of promotional co-operatives which together do specified activities. In the economic sector, co-operatives exist in both high and low zones of agriculture.
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EN
At the time of markets' globalization in Western Europe, a new paradigm of co-operative activity has emerged. It is the subjeet of numerous diseussions and questions on the meaning of co-operative activities. The opinions are ambiguous since there are many deeision makers and various interests are involved. Who is, then, more in favor of a co-operative movement? Author aims to answer this one and many others question in her article based on numerous experienees achieved by the French seientists.
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