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Content available remote Rozličné vize lidství: rozporuplné dědictví „Práva národů“
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The author is concerned with the foundations of moral-political questions of intercultural recognition. She poses the question of how we may respect the existence of fundamentally different ontologies and ways of life which must be articulated and acknowledged not only in the context of the constitutions of individual states, but also in the various continental communities and at the level of international law. The author endeavours to develop the conception of „juris generative politics“ of S. Benhabib. Her discussion involves two steps. In the first part she examines the work of J. Rawls in some detail, addressing his example of the Islamic respectable, hierarchical society which he constructs in his The Law of Peoples under the title Kazanistan. In the second part, she compares this theory with the post-colonial „multi-cultural“ situa¬tion in South African society. On the basis of a detailed account of the ethno-cultural and legal-political conflict in this republic, the author attempts to provide support for two mutually-connected theses. Firstly, that, by means of the transculturation of the white minority and the recognition of repressed aboriginal African customs and traditions, a common consensus of society is being created. Secondly, along with this process of mutual recognition there is emerging a resymbolisation and reinterpretation of the basic norms of the constitution itself.
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Article deals with the problem of termination of pregnancy when the prenatal diagnosis proves the genetically impaired development of foetus. Author focuses on the solution of this issue within ethics of social consequences which represents a form of non-utilitarian consequentialism. Analysis of given issue is addressed especially through the value of human dignity and humanity which function as an axiological fundaments of this ethical theory. Article includes the consideration of circumstances which can happen in this conflicting situation, particularly it addresses the fact that impaired fetal development may lead into various levels of intellectual disability of newborn child and it also discusses whether it would be in accordance with humanity and human dignity to bring such a child into existence.
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The article shows the key aspects of the Christological approach to Karl Barth’s teaching about “the humanity of God”. The author argues that in the mirror of Jesus Christ’s humanity the humanity of God included in Jesus’s divine nature is revealed. It is in Jesus Christ that kenosis and gloria, humanum and divinum meet in an amazing way; and in the negotiating space which is constituted by His Person they explain each other, speaking more sonorously with their own voice. Hence the point of departure for a reflection on the problem that is posed here, is looking closely at the formal basis of Barth’s theology. Jesus Christ’s central place – with respect to the contents, form and method – is considered to be one of its most important attributes. The author of Die Kirchliche Dogmatik starts his argument by discussing Jesus Christ’s pre-existence with the help of the doctrine of “the gracious election” that is a modified conception of his earlier Trinitarian theology. It says that God “from the beginning” is directed to man, suggesting a pro-human character of God’s being and acting. In the light of Barth’s doctrine Jesus Christ, as the second Person of the Trinity, is not only the object of election”, but He is also the electing subject. As the One Who Wants to complete the Father’s salutary work, he is the justification and guarantee of our salvation. Barth categorically pronounces himself in favor of the Christological paradigm of the Revelation saying that around history and the dialogue, in which God and a man meet and are together – around a mutually made and kept relation – there is the most complete opening and exchange. It happens in the Person, since Jesus Christ is in the only and in the highest degree: a true God's man (Gott des Menschen) and a true Divine Man (Mensch Gottes). The phrase about the “humanity of God” – is Emmanuel, to whom we pass from the Christological centre, taking into consideration the theological and anthropological consequences following this movement.
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Content available Michael H. Mitias on challenges of universalism
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The age-old philosophical idea of universalism defended by Husserl has in our times come under heavy inter-continental intellectualistic attacks. Advocates of localism, relativism and particularity have accused it of being a form of “Euro centrism”, and thus of being an essentially hegemonic concept. This paper examines Michael H. Mitias on challenges of universalism. Despite its short-comings, Mitias is perfectly in order when he insists that universalism does not set cultural understandings aside, for it does not iconoclastically view them as the cultural muck of history or as a cluster of irrational prejudices. This may be a good start point in terms of the future needs of our humanity and collective destiny, but it may not be enough to secure this future for all of us.
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In the article the author describes the latest parenting techniques: in vitro fertilization, the conception of post mortem life bank institutions and surrogate. The paper presents risks that result from their implementation.
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In the article the author describes the latest parenting techniques: in vitro fertilization, the conception of post mortem life bank institutions and surrogate. The paper presents risks that result from their implementation.
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Author's aim is to describe issue of senility in Poland. Researcher describes biological and communal problems which are related to senility, including problems that families of older people have to face with, even when they can count on any help. Author wants to pay attention to changes that had been made in society and in single human being by fact, that human life is longer than before.
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Content available remote O dwóch cywilizacjach w myśli Michała Pawlikowskiego (1887-1970)
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Michał Pawlikowski (1887-1970) was a Polish essayist, poet, publisher, editor, and bibliophile. Since World War I, he was an activist of the National Democratic Party (later the National Party). After World War II, he settled in Great Britain, temporarily staying in Zakopane, Poland. Pawlikowski is the author of essays and journalism where he collected his philosophical views on nation and culture, as well as on civilization and race. He sought cause and effect relationships in the history of humanity as factors that shaped the contemporary world. In his opinion, the world is divided between two mutually antagonistic civilizations: Western and Eastern. Such a perspective of his thought has been inscribed in Polish wider reflection on the nation. It is close to messianic concepts that were held by Romantic thinkers and artists, while at the same time it contains tints of national megalomania. His writings can be termed controversial and are often characterized as being full of discrepancies, as well as simplifying a number of complex issues; in particular, in his opponents’ views Pawlikowski’s thought is too close to conspiracy theory of history. Alternatively Pawlikowski deserves recognition for his depictions of the man as a free human being who has a potential to make individual choices in accordance with ethical ideals and obligations towards the community.
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Content available remote Maria Sklodowska-Curie - scientist, friend, manager
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Great names in science represent an inexhaustible source and richness of inspiration, satisfaction and consolation, a moving and victorious force. Throughout her exemplifying life, Maria Sklodowska remained modest but with a keen sense of humor, of an outstanding style, a mine of knowledge and experience, of innovative ideas and a rich inner life. Full of love, of passion to give and to share, of natural optimism, mixed with a light melancholy, so typical for sages. She vehemently defended the love of scientific research, of the spirit of adventure and entrepreneurship and fought for international culture, for the protection of personality and talent. Maria Sklodowska left her passion to science, her dedication to work including education and training of young people, her passionate adherence to her family, her belief in her friends, her pure and profound humanity and warmth!The paper should be a homage to her, an appreciation of her work over the years, but not less a correspondence, a conversation with her! On the other hand, the present solemn occasion resuscitates the personalities of Maria and Pierre Curie and their work, in particular of Maria Sklodowska in her own native land! In this manner, it truly contributes to her immortality!
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Landmann’s fundamental anthropology answers the question of what is the source of various forms of humanity in history, what is the origin of the variability of historical images of man. A striking feature of this anthropology is, however, the search for what is fundamental, related to the spirit of Wilhelm Dilthey’s historical thinking. It leads to the discovery in man of historicity as his constitutive feature. Both of these alternative ways of understanding man from the point of view of either his historical changeability or the stability/continuity of his fundamental structure turn out to be reconcilable in the theoretical approach which Landmann proposes under the name of fundamental anthropology. In Landmann’s thought about man, human historicity/creativity is fixed and human nature is immutable.
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Content available Xenophobia in Africa: origins and manifestations
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The issue of xenophobia is fast becoming a negative uprising on the African continent with the recent cases of Zambia and South Africa. This xenophobic tendency in Africa is based on prejudice and hatred directed towards foreign nationals, specifically fellow black Africans. Foreign nationals are deemed by the natives as persistent threats to employment security, accommodation and resource distribution, to mention a few. This alien attitude towards fellow humans, and especially fellow Africans, is against the ethic-theological attitude of live and let live, embedded in African communal worldview. Africans are said to be notoriously religious, though African religious consciousness was originally derived from African Traditional Religion, while Islam and Christianity have given further impetus to this consciousness. With African Traditional Religion, God is at the apex of the ontology, and He expects humans to thrive in a mutual complementary fashion with all other beings within the environment. This gives the background to the ethic-theological spirit of live and let live, where Africans are to put the interest of the community above their individual interest. However, with the recent xenophobic uprising on African soil, there is a need for a critical study on the new wave of individualism taken sway on African soil and natives. The purpose of this research, therefore, is to expose the ethic-theological implications of xenophobia for the twenty-firstcentury humanity in Africa.
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The paper aims at grasping Henryk Elzenberg’s thought on human condition on both social and universal level. By showing an individual in the world doomed to relations Elzenberg tries to analyse distortion and over-interpretations of impulses coming both from human psyche and from civilization. By stigmatization of the shallowness of life and omnipresent utilitarianism he wants to find an alternative to raise the man to higher level, to salvation. For this he proposes focusing on perfect values, independent from man. Noticing the difference between the nature of human and other creatures he highlights the role discovering one’s personal capacities and the necessity of gathering them in what is called culture. Setting as the demand the turn first in mind, related to deepening of self-consciousness, and then also spiritual, he sets alternative roads of experiencing the world, both that given in senses and alternative-one. All of his ideas are ways of building humanity to be more essential and rewarding.
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Content available Human identity and purpose according to the Qur'an
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Joseph Ellul w artykule zatytułowanym Tożsamość i cel człowieka według Koranu odnosi się do tajemnicy stworzenia według świętej księgi muzułmanów. Według Koranu cały wszechświat został stworzony przez Boga. Natura za pośrednictwem stworzenia przypomina człowiekowi o je- dyności Boga oraz uczy go niektórych Jego atrybutów. Człowiek, będąc przez Niego stworzony, jest wyposażony w naturalną zdolność do bycia Jego świadkiem i głoszenia jedyności Stworzycie- la. Dlatego poprzez kontemplację stworzenia został wezwany do zwrócenia się ku Bogu i podpo- rządkowania się Stworzycielowi, który troszczy się o całe stworzenie. Umieszczony w centrum stworzonej natury, podporządkowanej Bogu, człowiek winien naśladować wszechświat w tym pod- porządkowaniu. Jest on odpowiedzialny przed Bogiem za swoje działania w świecie. Cała jego aktywność wpisuje się w dzieło stworzenia. W tej perspektywie islam jawi się jako religia natural- na, opierająca się na jedyności Boga, która została wpisana w naturę pierwszego człowieka. We- dług Koranu Adam już od początku był monoteistą.mniej
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Joseph Ellul w artykule zatytu?owanym To?samo?? i cel cz?owieka wed?ug Koranu odnosi si? do tajemnicy stworzenia wed?ug ?wi?tej ksi?gi muzu?manów. Wed?ug Koranu ca?y wszech?wiat zosta? stworzony przez Boga. Natura za po?rednictwem stworzenia przypomina cz?owiekowi o je- dyno?ci Boga oraz uczy go niektórych Jego atrybutów. Cz?owiek, b?d?c przez Niego stworzony, jest wyposa?ony w naturaln? zdolno?? do bycia Jego ?wiadkiem i g?oszenia jedyno?ci Stworzycie- la. Dlatego poprzez kontemplacj? stworzenia zosta? wezwany do zwrócenia si? ku Bogu i podpo- rz?dkowania si? Stworzycielowi, który troszczy si? o ca?e stworzenie. Umieszczony w centrum stworzonej natury, podporz?dkowanej Bogu, cz?owiek winien na?ladowa? wszech?wiat w tym pod- porz?dkowaniu. Jest on odpowiedzialny przed Bogiem za swoje dzia?ania w ?wiecie. Ca?a jego aktywno?? wpisuje si? w dzie?o stworzenia. W tej perspektywie islam jawi si? jako religia natural- na, opieraj?ca si? na jedyno?ci Boga, która zosta?a wpisana w natur? pierwszego cz?owieka. We- d?ug Koranu Adam ju? od pocz?tku by? monoteist?.mniej
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Humanization in different spheres of people’s life is needed, as an alternative to the phenomenon of dehumanization. Therefore, this process does not leave a side the educational sphere. The humanistic approaches in education repeatedly were a subject of debate. That is why the declaration is in the law of Ukraine «On Education» that one of the most important areas of the development of the national education system is humanization and liberalization of all aspects of higher education, «humanization» process of training and education. The implementation of humanistic direction of the higher education system provides for implementation of two interrelated components: basic qualifications and good health and physical fitness of the future professionals. Recently, a lot of higher education institutions of our country have become popular «Sokol» system of physical education. Unfortunately, in the scientific literature, little attention is paid to disclosure humanistic values to this educational concept. Therefore, the authors of this article attempt to justify the theoretical and practical relevance, in the territory of present «Sokol» physical education as one of the main components of humanistic education of future teachers of physical culture. «Sokol» movement began to exist at the end of the last century thanks for the Czech specialist Miroslav Tyrš and was aimed to harmonize intellectual, moral and physical development of a young person as a citizen of each country. Based on a retrospective analysis and in the context of the modern paradigm «Sokol» education is outlined in article a substantive field of humanistic and justified the need of training future specialists in physical education and sport. The basis of the system of managing the humanization of physical education should be teaching and implementation of innovative technologies built on the principles of subject-teacher-student relationship. The use of such technology makes it possible to democratize educational environment and its target to achieve high performance in their future careers graduates. It is this technology «Sokol» model of physical education. Implementation in practice makes it possible to implement humanistic ideas of a good existing in all areas of human life.
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Content available Boundaries, Transgression, and Resistance
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In this essay I analyze the phenomenon of boundary and the mode(s) of human experiencing of it. I claim that it is essential, or even foundational, to culture. Humans encounter boundaries positively or negatively virtually everywhere, in all forms of experience of reality and of themselves. To experience a boundary is, obviously, not identical with a simple acceptance of our limitations, but is equally constituted by a pursuit to transgress it. There is no boundary without at least possible transgression, and there is no transgression without a boundary. In this sense one cannot be understood without the other. This paradoxical relation is constitutive – as we know from the great narratives of our culture – for culture and humankind in their essential entanglement. But this picture is to be supplemented by a moment of resistance – even if we were able to transgress all boundaries, does that mean we should? It is this question which draws our attention to creative and normative aspects of our experience of boundaries. It is this question which constitutes a challenge to our thinking and acting whenever we encounter a boundary. In my analyses I pay some special attention to boundaries in contemporary art.
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Rev. K. Michalski is not only an outstanding mediaevalist and a pioneer of research on the achievements of the Polish Middle Ages but also the creator of an important philosophy of history, which has become a significant component of his research, especially during the dramatic period of World War II, although its framework had been developed already in the 1930s. Rejecting passive approach to tradition, he supported the creative attitude presented by Thomism. His concept of history is determined by an optimistic conviction of the constant evolution of social-cultural life of mankind towards more perfect forms.
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Ks. K. Michalski to wybitny mediewista, pionier badań nad dorobkiem polskiego średniowiecza, ale i twórca ważnej filozofii dziejów. Historiozofia stała się ważnym elementem jego badań zwłaszcza w dramatycznym okresie II wojny światowej, ale jej zręby stworzył już w latach trzydziestych XX w. Odrzucając bierny szacunek dla tradycji, opowiadał się za prezentowanym przez tomizm, twórczym do niej stosunkiem. Jego koncepcję dziejów wyznacza optymistyczne przekonanie o ciągłej ewolucji życia kulturalno-społecznego ludzkości ku coraz doskonalszym formom.
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Content available remote Justice, Sympathy and the Command of our Esteem
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I have shown here the different roles that sympathy plays in the accounts of justice in the Treatise and Enquiry. In the former work, a redirected sympathy naturally extends our concern, and subsequently our moral approval or blame, to all those included within the scope of the rules of justice. In the Enquiry, we find this same progress of sentiments, but Hume’s introduction of the sentiment of humanity allows him to make a stronger case for the importance of those virtues that are useful, particularly the virtues of justice. The command of our esteem and our moral approval of justice secure a place for justice at the heart of Hume’s ethics. This does not entail, however, that other useful virtues are not also essential. Benevolence and the care of children, friendship, and gratitude not only help to sustain sociability, but they are essential for living a properly human life.
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This paper is an attempt to present the Hegelian theology of Vito Mancuso, a radical lay Catholic theologian, from the perspective of the ethics of social consequences, as primarily promoted by Vasil Gluchman. Mancuso is a keen observer of today’s society and he identifies a serious flaw among contemporary people in what he calls the idol of our time. This so-called idol is a human desire which seems to have been promoted more aggressively within contemporary society through various publicity channels, so it has developed into a mass phenomenon in today’s world. According to Mancuso, this desire is man’s longing to stay young despite the natural process of aging, a fact which has individual, spiritual, as well as social implications. He also introduces the necessity for the cultivation of one’s soul for the personal benefit of individuals but also for the prosperity of society in general. In other words, Mancuso borrows, from Hegel, the necessity that the human spirit should develop to the point of positively accepting the materiality of its natural constitution for the wellbeing of all individuals living in the same society which very much resembles Gluchman’s focus on human reasoning and moral action aimed at the promotion of positive consequences and moral duty as means to educate the human spirit towards tolerance and responsibility, all key concepts in Gluchman’s ethics of social consequences.
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The paper starts from the assumption that Croatian modern lyric, from Matoš to Maleš, is haunted by various monsters, phantoms and mutants, and possessed by ghosts. Phantasmal hair speaks, the body changed by illness acquires autonomy, bird-men, space-twins and angels inhabit the humanized world, the dead seek eternity, the turtle measures itʼs own existence in relation to space and time, and Jesus-fish according to the degree of its own evolutionary transformation, while language cyborgs and hybrid beings are born. The lyric about monsters is itself a monstrous discourse. In this discourse human existence is necessarily contaminated by the abhuman and the parahuman, language includes its own mutations, and the encounter with meaning depends on the ultimate deformation, hybridization and disappearance of meaning. Thus, in the very center of our humanity, in the artistic form that determines the measure of the humanity of our community, questions about what is humane and inhumane, how to determine the boundary between them, and is not the general understanding of humanity always-already determined by oneʼs own inhuman or a-human are raised. Looking at a series of lyric texts, the paper will analyze these relationships and subsequently show their possible political and legal effects. I will refer to theoreticians who read the lyric as a linguistic event and performative type of utterance (J. Culler, P. de Man, B. Johnson, and others) and to thinkers who, to say it simply, perceive the ideas of equality, law and justice as phantasmal, mutated, scandalous or monstrous democracy (G. Agamben, J. Rancière, J. Derrida, J-L. Nancy and others).
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Content available remote Hume's Humanity and the Protection of the Vulnerable
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It is well known that Hume excluded inferior rational beings, who are incapable of resistance and weak resentment, from his concept of justice. This resulted in a critique of Hume’s theory of justice, as it would not protect those who were the most vulnerable against ill treatment. The typical answer to this critique is that Hume excluded inferior rational beings from the concept of justice, but not from that of morality, and that he considered their protection to be the task of humanity. The subject of this text is the range of Hume’s humanity. What manner of protection does Hume’s humanity truly offer? Despite the conclusion that this manner of protection of the vulnerable is insufficient, Hume’s humanity contains valuable characteristics worthy of re-evaluation in modern debate — both on the limits of humanity and on the conditions and models of protecting the vulnerable.
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