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EN
A large number of centers of Marian devotion, as introduced here, were built and developed at the same time as the respective foundations of Franciscan convents. The majority of them, however (Hrubieszow, Lezajsk, Rzeszow, Skepe, Kazimierz Dolny, Pinczow, Wambierzyce) existed before the arrival of the Friars Minor. There were also centers that were developed after the arrival of the friars, such as Kalwaria Zebrzydowska and Pilica. When the sect appeared simultaneously with the foundation of a convent - or even after it - the believers' devotion developed spontaneously. It was only afterwards, as time passed, that the friars started new forms of worship in the spirit of Saint Francis, who had the large sect of the Virgin Mary. If they instead took over pre-existing sanctuaries, they would immediately take Franciscan shape. The majority of sanctuaries managed by the Friars Minor Observant focused on images of the Mother of God with the baby Jesus; there are only statues of the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus in a few locations. The ecclesiastical authority recognized the extreme importance of some of these images and statues, and even set up centers of Marian devotion on an international level, like Kalwaria Zebrzydowska. Among all the sanctuaries overseen by Observant Friars in Poland, those of the Marian devotion are not only predominant in numbers, but also in frequency of pilgrimages.
EN
The positive opinion of the patriotism of Bernardine Friars in the 19th Century was based less on learned texts than on popular literature. Principally on Mickewicz's national epic 'Pan Tadeusz' and 'Dziady' part III. There was also glorification of Bernardine patriotism and martyrdom in the fine arts, particularly in painting from the period of the January Rising. (A. Grottger, 'Closing Churches in Warsaw'). We have some information concerning the participation of friars from 16 Bernardine monasteries in the November Rising of 1830. On the basis of the number of people involved, the Warsaw monastery takes prime position, although other large monasteries made comparable contributions. The nation's enthusiasm for the rising was shared by Bernardine friars . As in other churches, so in theirs, services were held for the fatherland, the fallen in risings and, at every occasion, solemn and patriotic homilies were preached. Before the January Rising, in 1861 both diocesan and monastic clergy closed all of Warsaw's churches and chapels in protest against Russian profanation. In solidarity with the Catholic clergy, pastor Leopold Otto of Warsaw's Evangelical Church and Warsaw's Rabbis Ber Meisels, Isaak Kramsztyk and Markus Jastrow closed the Evangelical church and Warsaw's synagogue. Testimony to the participation of friars in National Risings in 19th century is the fact that frequently monasteries served as stores of weapons and uniforms for the freedom fighters. Friars recruited volunteers into the ranks of the risings. Monasteries were centres attracting the most patriotic elements, not only among monastic clergy, but also among the laity. Remote Bernardine monasteries frequently served as headquarters for commanders of the risings. From the pulpits of Bernardine churches proclamations were read decreeing the enfranchisement of peasants. Bernardine churches were witnesses to oaths received by monastic priests. Monasteries served as sources of support where, after the hardships of service in the field, frequently pursued by the enemy, sick and wounded, they found rest, a hot meal, clothes, money, words of hope and support and frequently nursing through their illness.
EN
The Franciscans were the first order ever in the history of the Church to have included mission activities in their observance. Doing missions has ever since been, and still remains, the charism of the Friars Minor. Polish Franciscans too are active in the mission area. The three historically shaped monastic families in the territory of Poland include a total of nine provinces today - all having their mission outlets, virtually on every continent, mostly in Africa and South America. Following the decline of the communist system, the Franciscans entered the former Soviet Union area. Moreover, the Friars Minor provide priestly assistance in many European countries. The significance of our Order in the Church's mission as a broad concept is not to be overestimated. This was noted by Pope Benedict XVI in his speech to the Franciscan Family delivered on the occasion of 800th anniversary of approval of its first observance. The material attached will brief you on the most recent history of missions carried out by Polish Franciscan provinces, incl.: the Friars Minor, Friars Minor Conventual and Friars Minor Capuchin.
EN
The article presents the sermons of the Franciscan preachers (Ordo Fratrum Minorum Reformatorum) from the baroque (XVIIth -XVIIIth century). The author treats of a subject of a sermones de tempore et de sanctis. She tries to quality its character. Its were showed against a background of history, theological and rhetorical tradition. The article concentrates specially on a rhetorical: inventio (auctoritates - the Bible and a commentary, an exemplum and a figura - understanded as an allegorical reading of the Scriptures), dispositio (structure of a sermon) and elocutio (lingual form of a sermon).
EN
Between the 19th and the 20th centuries, the largest branch of the Order of Friars Minor was formed by the members of the Third Order of Saint Francis, commonly called the Tertiaries. This term equally included even secular priests, both male and female. The encyclical of Leo XIII of September 17, 1882 Auspicato recommended the dissemination of the Third Order as a form of evangelical life in the world. This papal recommendation was often cited, showing the Tertiary movement as one of the most coveted forms of Christian life, which also includes the obligation to perform certain duties. One could say that during the pontificate of Leo XIII, the Third Order of Saint Francis was reformed and once again started to develop within the Church. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th was the period of rebirth and the blossoming of the Tertiary family - even the highest pontiffs became interested in this group, publishing 13 various documents about them.In the history of the Catholic Church in Silesia, the Tertiaries constituted a disciplined and fervent church organization, which was not solely due to the Franciscans but also because of the diocesan clergy and their secular followers. The majority of priests had quite a favorable view of the tertiary groups. In the 19th century, the Third Order of Saint Francis from the province of Saint Hedwig of Friars Minor was one of the most important areas of ministry, which provided the material support for various ecclesiastical agendas. For this reason, the Franciscans gave particular attention to this form of ministry. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Tertiary movement in Silesia was not organized legally; the communities were within the parishes, but they did not have the appropriate documentation. Believers were usually welcomed at the Third Order as a part of humanitarian work or during spiritual rituals that were performed in the parishes. Parts of the Tertiaries took or even oversaw the taking of vows during the meetings arranged for them in the convents at Mount Saint Anne or Panewniki. Magazines for the Tertiaries were very important in the Third Order's ministry, and appeared in both Polish and German. The Glos sw. Franciszka (in Polish) was distributed in upper Silesia, while the Franziskusbote's readers were found in lower Silesia and in the Valley of Klodzko.
EN
Francis of Assisi (1182-1226), saint and founder of the Order of Friars Minor (Ordo Fratrum Minorum) went to Rome with his first companions in 1209, where Pope Innocent III orally approved their forma vitae; this event is considered to be the beginning of the Franciscan Order. The Order was divided in geographic zones called provinces, which quickly extended into all of the European countries - and later into other parts of the world. The differences in the interpretation of the vow of poverty gave way to the formation of reformist movements, and in 1517, Pope Leo X acknowledged the division into two groups: the Order of Friars Minor Observants (Ordo Fratrum Minorum Regularis Observantiae) and the Order of Friars Minor Conventual (Ordo Fratrum Minorum Conventualium). In the sixteenth century yet another group was formed, the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (Ordo Fratrum Minorum Cappucinorum - 1523, 1619). Within the Observant Friars, three observant sub-groups were additionally formed, among which were the so-called reformists (Ordo Fratrum Minorum Strictioris Observantiae Reformatorum - 1532). The Friars Minor's first convent on Polish territory was founded in Wroclaw in 1236, followed by one in Krakow in 1237. The Observants founded their first convent in Krakow in 1453, while the reformists began to establish themselves in Poland in 1621, and the Capuchins in 1681. Until 1772 each group successfully progressed throughout Poland; the Conventuals were divided into three provinces, while the Bernadines and reformists each had four provinces, and the Capuchins just one. The division of Poland at the end of the 18th century, and later its loss of independence, provoked the annulment of all religious orders. Only the provinces in Galizia remained (under Austro-Hungarian domain), which after Poland's reconquest of independence (in 1918) gave way to the rebirth of Franciscan life. Currently in Poland (2009) there are 10 Franciscan provinces: five are that of the Friars Minor (with a total of 1,309 friars), three are provinces of the Friars Minor Conventuals (with a total of 1,172 friars) and two provinces are that of the Friars Minor Capuchin (created from 610 believers).
EN
On February 28, 1738, the government of the Province of Saint Mary of the Angels of the Friars Minor - Reformists in Malopolska accepted the new foundation of its city's convent under the sub-judge of the territorial court of Chelm, Andrzej Wolski. Father Symforian Arakielowicz was the prefect of both the construction site for the convent as well as that the adjacent church. The consecration of the church and its handing over to the followers points to the time when construction ended. The consecration of the church and the seven altars took place on the seventh Sunday after the Pentecost (July 19, 1750), and the celebration was presided over by the bishop of Chelm, Mons. Jozef Eustachy Szembek. In 1751, the church interior was embellished with the Stations of the Cross; thanks to the generous donations from its benefactors, the following year the Stations of the Cross were also placed on the exterior. From 1746 on, the convent became a part of the new Russian custody of reformists from Saint Mary of Sorrows, which from 1763 was elevated to the level of autonomous province. From that point until its end, the fate of the convent was closely linked to the history of the province. In the year 1800, following the ending of the Russian province, the convent returned once again to be a part of its province of origin. Civil authorities definitively closed the convent as a penalty for the involvement of its followers in the insurrection (1863-64). Throughout its history the convent served as a center of philosophical study. The reformist friars developed their ministry in church, helped nearby parishes, and performed humanitarian work. The friars returned to the city in 1936. From then on (except for the period during the Second World War, 1939-44) they have wholeheartedly dedicated themselves to their work for the local people, for which they are greatly appreciated.
EN
The article presents the ways the Franciscan Observants Order preachers of the Saxon epoch reached worshippers through referring to aspects of their everyday life Franciscan Observants Friars activities were presented in the light of the growth in significance of the Catholic Church in Poland at the beginning of the 18th century which resulted from the success of the post-Trent reforms. The role of the preacher's service in religious life was also presented in this context. The meaning of monastic preaching, including the one of Franciscan Observants Friars, was particularly stressed. The main qualities of the Baroque penmanship in sermon writing were outlined too. The author has analysed three main areas of reference to everyday life in these sermons as highly conventionalised texts. They were: religiousness of the believers, their morality, social reality and historical memory. Sarmatian religiousness is strongly connected with the worship of the Holy Mary and this fact was reflected in the homiletics. This was a quality characteristic for the Saxon epoch. The opportunity for the development of predictions were the numerous and based on Marian coronations performances. Another significant context was formed by the Saints' Worship and pompa funebris. Morality was mainly used for depicting axiomatic messages therefore there were numerous references to behaviour from which examples were drawn from everyday life. References to the historical memory in sermons appeared in the contexts of Holy history, the history of Poland and the popular history in the light of the contemporary chronicles and finally in relationship with genealogical traditions.
EN
'Popular religious writings', within the meaning of this article, is any religious output designed for not-quite-sophisticated recipients, such as: lives of saints; moral/catechetic talks and cult-related publications (services, prayer-books, meditations, etc.), possibly - but very rarely indeed - some easy theological texts. Such writings first appeared only in 17th century and were widespread primarily in 19th c. and in the former half of 20th c. Such works were authored by Franciscans of all the branches active in the Polish lands - that is, the Friars Minor (colloquially referred to as Bernardines and Reformats), Friars Minor Conventual and Friars Minor Capuchin - who approached it as apostolate of the printed word. Sisters of the Second Franciscan Order (the Poor Clares, the Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration) practised it on a lesser scale. Research needs being done on the corresponding contribution of Third-Order-Regular conventual assemblies. For literature of this sort, written by representatives of Franciscan orders in the Polish lands, the following thematic groups are discernible: (i) hagiographies; (ii) prayer-books, particularly, those referring to Via Dolorosa settings; (iii) periodicals, particularly those targeted at tertiaries and members of fraternities affiliated to Franciscan churches. Hagiographies would primarily deal with lives of Franciscan saints as well as of saints representing other spiritualities. Prayer-books include, in the first place, those associated with main Passion centres run by one of the Franciscan orders (Gora-Swietej-Anny, Kalwaria-Paclawska, Kalwaria-Zebrzydowska, Wejherowo). Between 1918 and 1939, male and female Franciscan orders (of the First, Second and Third Orders Regular) published in Poland a total of forty-five periodicals, including calendars and periodicals intended for internal use. The major publishing centres were Niepokalanow and Gora-Swietej-Anny as well as Katowice-Panewniki, Krakow and Warsaw.
EN
There are more than 90 Lord's sanctuaries currently functioning in Poland. Although they comprise only 12% of the total number of sanctuaries in Poland, they have always been significant pilgrimage centres on Polish soil. Friars Minor are custodians of over 50 sanctuaries, 7 of which are the Lord's sanctuaries. Within the analysed group the most important centres are: sanctuary of Our Lord's Passion in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska (of international rank), sanctuary of St. Anne and of Our Lord's Passion on Mount St. Anne (of international rank) as well as Our Lord's Passion sanctuaries in Kalwaria Paclawska, Wejherowo, Pakosc and Alwernia (of the rank ranging beyond a single diocese and region). The Lord's sanctuaries are one of the oldest pilgrimage centres in Poland. One of the most important factors that influenced their creation and development in the 13th century onwards was the pastoral activity of mendicant orders - Franciscans and Dominicans. The Franciscan spirituality focused mainly on the poor and suffering Christ. Through the introduction of nativity play and the devotion of the Christmas crib the Friars Minor revived the cult of the Child Jesus in Poland. Most importantly, though, they influenced the shaping and development of the cult of Our Lord's Passion. The paper outlines the origins and the functioning of Our Lord's sanctuaries run by Friars Minor. It also presents Franciscan churches which, during the pre-partition time in Poland, were popular pilgrimage centres and were frequently visited by the faithful; and other Franciscan pilgrimage centres housing miraculous painting of Suffering Christ, crucifixes and calvaries, which despite not being canonically approved as Our Lord's sanctuaries, still remain important places of the cult of the Lord's Passion, and during main Plenary Indulgence celebrations gather numerous pilgrims.
EN
The research covered several travel accounts of the Polish Franciscans who travelled around Europe in the 18th century. Accounts which could be found in monastic manuscripts were most commonly used. They were usually journeys undertaken by the Order's Chapter and within these articles you can see the elements of sacrum and profanum are clearly pointed out in those accounts. The described voyages were treated in one respect as pilgrimages filled with deep religious experiences and on the other hand they were mainly cognitive journeys. The Friars, who enriched their spirituality, also came across numerous sanctuaries and the relics kept within them and took part in important religious celebrations. Simultaneously, they got to know many historical places and during their numerous, often dangerous journeys. They often had to find a way out of difficult life situations, therefore expanding their horizons and developing their understanding of the secular world. The encounters they had with secular people who they met along the way were also significant. Overall we find much ambivalence in these accounts.
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