Purpose: This study aims to assess the direction of changes in the extent of extreme, relative, and statutory poverty in 2008–2017 in Poland, along with the spatial differentiation of poverty in individual voivodships. Methodology: The study of poverty differentiation based on data from Household Budgets Survey. Obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis, using elements of multidimensional analysis. Results: The research revealed that there are significant differences in the level of poverty in individual voivodships, with lower values observed in Western Poland. A significant drop in the level of poverty, especially extreme poverty, was recorded in 2008–2017. Furthermore, fluctuations in the extent of poverty are strongly impacted by state policy. Implications: Research results may be useful to policy-makers at the local government level not only in Poland but also in other countries, mainly from the perspective of the European Union’s Europe 2020 strategy. Originality/Value: The article undertakes the topic of poverty, which constitutes an important and current socioeconomic concern. Despite progressive economic development, there still exist disadvantaged groups of entities and households.