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Content available remote How to manage TB in children? Problems and solutions in four cases
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Children bear a substantial part of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic worldwide, and it is estimated that there were ≅ 500.000 childhood TB cases globally in 2010, although accurate data are problematic to obtain given the many difficulties associated with TB diagnosis in children and the weaknesses of surveillance systems in countries where TB is endemic. The World Health Organization is working hard in order to reduce the TB prevalence rates and deaths by half by 2015. In this challenge, general practitioners and pediatricians play a key role in detecting early cases of suspected TB and sending them to experts in infectious diseases. This will reduce delayed diagnosis and the spread of disease, which is especially important now that the prevalence of multidrug resistant TB is increasing. For this reason, the purpose of this report was to delineate the characteristic clinical features of the most common forms of pediatric TB and to suggest a rational and practical approach to the disease underlining the role of patients and parents personal and clinical history.
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Content available remote Safety and efficacy of two protocols for sedation in pediatric oncology procedures
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EN
Invasive procedures, such as the lumbar puncture, can cause anxiety and pain in children undergoing treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We investigated the safety and efficacy of two different protocols for pain relief in 20 children with ALL undergoing lumbar puncture. Protocol A was composed of an association between propofol and alfentanil. Protocol B consisted in the combination of propofol and ketamine. Vital and behavioural parameters, sedation and pain scores were recorded at different times during and after the procedure. All patients showed a satisfactory sedation and analgesia. We found a statistically significant difference of vital parameters between protocol A and protocol B, while there were no significative differences between sedation scores and the other parameters evaluated. Patients in protocol A showed a higher incidence of major side effects, such as respiratory depression. Our results show that both protocols are effective to obtain a good sedation and analgesia in children with ALL undergoing lumbar puncture, but the association between propofol and ketamine appears more safe due to the lower incidence of side effects.
EN
We report on two cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium, in one case associated with pneumorrhachis, occurring in two children suffering from the novel influenza H1N1 virus infection. At the admission both children presented with fever, violent dry cough, dyspnea and tachypnea. Radiological studies showed sizeable pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium in both patients. One of the patients also a pneumorrachis. Children were initially treated by intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics, antipyretics and a cough sedative. Oral Oseltamivir (60 mg twice daily for 5 days) was administered after the diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Patients’ clinical condition quickly improved and children were discharged with a partial resolution of their radiological findings. Although these conditions are usually self-limiting and without respiratory or systemic consequences, their prompt recognition in children with H1N1 influenza virus infection is essential to establish fast and adequate therapy mainly related to the control of cough and the commencement of antiviral treatment.
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