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1
Content available remote LYING AS A COMPONENT OF THERAPY
100%
EN
There is not common agreement among doctors and ethicists about permission to lie to the patient in order to support the process of healing and cure. The article shows various moral attitudes to the use of lying during therapy. Practitioners, as well as, ethicists offer arguments for and against particular clinical practices. However, analyses lead to the truthfulness as the best approach which respects ones rights. There is not place for exceptions. With sufficient care and support from medical staff, the obligation to tell the truth always, even if it is very difficult element of therapy, serves the patient in the best possible way.
EN
The author focuses on the interpretation of the basic questions in A. Meinong's conception of ethics. He sets out from Meinong's theory of objects, in which he sees the foundation of the conception, especially in so far as is concerned the application of its basic categories - objects, objectives, dignitatives and desideratives - to the axiological and ethical fields. The author emphasises that it is the general theory of values that is of defining significance for Meinong's conception of ethics. Among the various distributions within the field of values the key one is considered to be Meinong's distinction between personal and impersonal values. The author considers the defining position of values towards 'Sollen' to be another of Meinong's fundamental thoughts. The author also examines Meinong's attempt to observe apriori laws within the sphere of dignitatives and desideratives. Emphasised in the overall assessment is that a serious handicap in Meinong's interpretation of philosophical ideas is the complexity and at times even the obscurity of his expression. At the same time the author points to the renewed interest in the subjects of Meinong's philosophy, especially in the English-speaking world and in Austria.
EN
Three are three dominant ways in which the relation of gratitude is described in moral philosophy - as a debt, as an appropriate emotion or as a virtue. Although the debt theory is coherent and clear, it must be complemented with a psychological account of the relation between the giver and the recipient of a favor. A virtue based account of gratitude in turn moves the limits of what is morally significant too far. The conditions under which one is obliged to express gratitude comprise both motives of the giver and the recipient and the circumstances in which the favor was done. Egoistic motivation, coercion or lack of intentionality in the initial act of favor make it impossible to talk about the recipient's obligations. One should also exercise caution in the use of the idea of claim or right to gratitude.
EN
The article is about teaching of ethics in public schools, seen from the legal aspect and describes the differences between teaching religion and ethics in public schools.
EN
This article deals with the phenomenon of euthanasia. It refers to the issue of understanding human death and the ongoing discusion on this topic. At first it presents the definition of euthanasia and it tries to describe what the concept of euthanasia means. In the second part, it draws attention to the opinions and views on the topic of euthanasia from selected German authors, who refuse classical arguments to justify the legitimacy of euthanasia and present arguments against it. Finally, the article contains a summary of the most important recent arguments about euthanasia and draws attention to the importance of assessing the intent of the act and the difference between the terms killing and letting die.
EN
In this paper, the author focuses on the ethics of the (Polish) humanist. He tries to emphasize the proper domain of his moral reflection. This domain is not reducible to prescriptions of general ethics, not even so-called ethics of science. It is because of the fact that the work of the humanist is characterized by commitment to the special ideal of truth. It is not necessarily an universal truth. Its sources are so-called extra-scientific values - religion, national solidarity, the well-being of humanity defined in terms of some ideology. The moral aspect of the humanist work manifests in minimizing the damages caused by the presence of extra-scientific values and in executing the rules of the good work.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2014
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tom 69
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nr 5
388 – 398
EN
The paper offers an interpretation of Kierkegaard’s original concept of self-choice, which is as a key ethical category in his book Either-Or. The main intention is to shed light on some basic aspects of self-choice, such as the three constitutive parts of choice (freedom, principle of contradiction, and passion) and the two movements in choice (isolation, continuity). The last part of the paper focuses on the issues of criterionlessness and irrationality of choice.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2019
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tom 74
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nr 6
472 – 484
EN
The paper deals with the analyses of the third paradox from the Cicero's work Stoic Paradoxes (Cic. Parad. 20 – 26). This paradox is trying to defend the controversial stoic claim, that sins and virtues are alike (Aequalia esse peccata et recte facta). In the paper the author tries to present two interpretative solutions to the question of determining the sources of stoic ideas in this paradox. The first solution suggests that Cicero argues here with the ideas of early Stoicism and approaches the philosophical view of Panaetius as a representative of Middle Stoicism. The second solution interprets this passage in terms of early Stoicism. The author of the study is finally inclined to conclude, that it is more probable that Cicero based this passage on early Stoic sources.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2014
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tom 69
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nr 5
416 – 422
EN
What is the leap of faith? Is it a “suspension of the ethical”, suspension of the other in a moment of self-transformation of the knight of faith, or is it a monstrous paradox, the inherent ambiguity of existence and impossibility of ethics? – Revealed not just in the problem of “the other of the Other”, but also in the monstrous (feminine Christ's) body for others. Our last question is, how does this aversion influence not only faith as such, but also the possible subversion of “given” norms and values.
EN
The problem of moral motivation, or speaking more generally, the question, why we should follow demands of 'pure reason' rather than inclinations 'contingent nature', is of an essential importance to those who seem not to be satisfied with Kant,s approach to practical philosophy. But their position, most elequently expressed in the philosophy found in English language publications, is rather simplistic and it tends to separate the question of conflicting claims of reason and nature from the rest of Kant's philosophy. Thus despite the fact that Kant's ethics has enjoyed a renewed interest in analytic philosophy recently, it is typically subordinated to other ethical positions, such as utilitarianism, expressivism, a theory of virtues (Aristotelian or Humean), or various anti-theoretic forms of particularism. Proponents of these theories go in the footsteps of Foot, Williams, McDowell or Blackburn and reject all kinds of moral theories that resemble Kant's ethics too closely. It seems consequently necessary to venture beyond the proper field of Kant's scholarship when one wants to reach wider public. Which in turn means that it is advisable to raise a more general question: What issues should be included in every perspicuous and reliable moral theory? The author starts to discuss this problem in a neutral language (part one) in order to be able to defend Kant against most common objections (part two) to his ethics, then he reconstructs Kant's theory of motivation (part three) by pointing to some salient features of that theory which unfortunately has been either neglected or overlooked.
EN
In a world of rapidly advancing technological innovation, a case has been made to prioritize potential long-term benefits to future generations over the interests of those currently alive. Proponents of this approach, called longtermists, support investments in technology to avoid existential risks. They claim technology will eventually “solve” climate change, while ignoring techno-power reduction as a potential solution to global environmental catastrophe. Democratic control over technology mitigates some of these harms, yet falls short of the authors’ proposed level of oversight. In this paper, we consider the ethical hazards of longtermists’ stance. An ethical dilemma emerges from the devastating effect some technological advancements have on the environment. While we recognize the merits of long-term thinking, we argue longtermists’ prioritization consolidates power among few technocrats. This prioritization exacerbates existing inequalities instead of redistributing economic and political power to communities most affected by climate change. We posit this trade-off to be unethical.
EN
The main questions of the text are whether persons committed to different values can reach agreement, how they can achieve it, and what kind of ethics can be open to such an agreement if discrimination is to be avoided at the same time. Taking the discussion between R. Rorty and C. Geertz as the starting point, the authoress argues that we should abandon the concepts of ethnocentrism and relativism because they are ambiguous and that the crucial distinction runs between their different meanings. D. T. Meyers's ethics based on empathy and recognition is a solution to problems of diversity, both intra- and intercultural. It entails a radical change of ethical paradigm: an individualised approach to particular situations instead of general rules. But it can be applied only if the West gives up its claims to universality.
EN
The objective of the paper is to examine the question, in what sense does the idea of humans as the self-interpreting beings modify the understanding of ethics, namely, if the idea of self-interpretation changes the understanding humans as the moral beings. Can the will to define oneself as a member of a moral community be seen as the background of moral behavior, or is the moral dimension inseparably connected with the human identity? The resolution of the first question can show us the appropriate approach to the problem of the nature of the morals. Tylor's interpretation of the idea of self-interpretation will serve as the argumentation basis. His works can be namely taken as perhaps the most reasonable and systematic explanation of how to understand ethics in our days.
EN
The ethical dimension of the work of the historian is multi-dimensional. It is most frequently associated with trivial failure to respect rights of authorship or not mentioning the sources from which a historian drew information, which is perceived as unethical by the lay public as well as the by the professionals. However, the relationship of a researcher to the past and so also his interpretation of the events is hidden from the eyes of the public and difficult to uncover even for experts. It is determined by many factors, especially the fact that a researcher belongs to a particular group in the population and holds its values. This penetrates into his evaluation and description of the past, sometimes leading to under thrusting of the public with his own or group „truth“. The question of the ethical behaviour of the historian appears at this point. It is more serious because the work of a historian is difficult to monitor but has a real impact on society.
15
Content available remote PŘIROZENÝ ZÁKON: SROVNÁNÍ ŘÍMSKOKATOLICKÉ A ŽIDOVSKÉ PERSPEKTIVY
80%
Studia theologica
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2011
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tom 13
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nr 4
137-151
EN
The article focuses on the reception of the idea of the natural law in Jewish thinking from Medieval to Postmodern times. It starts with outlining Maimuni’s refusal to put practical and ethical aspects of human existence on the same footing as theoretical pursuits of human intellect. This assumption is set against Aquinas’ analogical understanding of the functioning of practical and speculative reason, which is essential for the Thomistic grounding of the concept of the natural law. The article then proceeds to Yoseph Albo, the first Jewish scholar to introduce a Christian-like concept of natural law. One of his objectives for adopting the idea of natural law might have been to shift the debate on social and political standing of Jews in Christian society to a new and theoretically better grounded platform than that of contingent lex humana represented by the Church and secular legislation on behalf of Jews throughout the Middle Ages. Finally, the article turns its attention to David Novak, who claims that the concept of natural law retains some value even in the postmodern setting. Instead of an attempt to find some universal phenomenon to ground natural law, it seems more authentic and more useful to see it as the constitution of a universal horizon by a thinker in a particular culture for his or her own culture.
EN
Two different interpretations of 'Huis clos' are proposed and both are presented as plausible. In the first reading the three protagonists are viewed as victims of the traditional, repressive society. Their difficulties are a result of social discrimination and stubborn adherence to stale morality of sham decency. In the second reading the three characters are viewed as selfish and inconsistent individuals who eagerly satisfy their desires and shamelessly neglect other people's needs. Now their difficulties are fully deserved as a punishment for cultivation of false ideas about their remarkable achievements, grand roles and fictitious obligations to others. Though both reading are plausible, the author argues that the second is more interesting and more characteristic of Sartre's philosophy. To sustain this claim the author offers a new, and rather unorthodox, interpretation of the concepts of 'etre-pour-autrui' and 'etre-pour-soi'. He concludes by presenting Sartre as a champion of an intellectualist ethics based on the concept of authentic life and a critical scrutiny of human motives.
17
Content available remote PŘIROZENÝ MRAVNÍ ZÁKON A BOŽÍ ZJEVENÍ
80%
Studia theologica
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2011
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tom 13
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nr 4
185–190
EN
The paper deals with the Natural Law from the point of view of Fundamental Theology, particularly the Theology of Revelation. The author argues in favour of the thesis that the Natural Law has a full validity only in cases when it is confirmed by the biblical Revelation of God. Universal ethics can only be found in the Light of Christ’s Gospel.
EN
The authoress presents the issue of international ethics or morality as one of the few normative systems that regulate international relations (inter alia next to international law or political norms). The article begins with the description of levels at which ethics in international relations is present - the level of individuals, of states, of international community). The authoress attempts to compare international law and ethics and points to differences between those two normative systems and manners of distinguishing legal norms from moral ones. The emphasis is laid on the idiosyncrasy of morality (ethics). Finally she analyses the reasons for growing importance of the ethics as well as the obstacles in that process.
EN
Entities produce financial statements that provide internal and external users of assets and financial units. However, due to abuses that occurred in 1990s, many members have lost confidence in this type of information. In order to build appropriate relationships between the various entities occurring in the market created a code of auditor's ethics, and with it a sense of security based on public confidence for the auditing profession.
EN
The author mentions two critical notes on the work of the ITC which does not consider its own former documents in its subsequent chronological texts. Moreover, the documents of this Commission are in need of an institutionalized academic dialogical reflection. Furthermore, the author deals with the category of species, which is very important in the sphere of natural order. Finally, the author demonstrates that the so-called “Golden Rule” is not particularly comprehensible out of the Trinitarian Image of God.
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