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EN
Joseph Conrad resorted to disguising drastic themes (such as eroticism), which include anthropophagy, described at least upon five occasions. Examined from this viewpoint, 'Heart of Darkness' discloses not only connections with the ethnological conceptions proposed by J. G. Frazer, but also an allegorical key to the plot, originating from Livy, whose writings the young Conrad read while studying for his final secondary school examination in Cracow.
EN
In an introduction to a discussion about Joseph Conrad and colonialism, the authoress proposed a synthetic description of Polish encounters with Africa: from Beniowski. Szolc-Rogozinski, Sienkiewicz, Conrad, Czekanowski and Malinowski to Kapuscinski. She also recalled Poles taking photographs of Africa: starting with Jan Czekanowski, Kazimierz Zagórski and Witold Grzesiewicz, to Ryszard Kapuscinski and Chris Ledóchowski. 'The history of Poland compels her to oscillate between methods deployed by the colonialists and those of the colonised. This past is the reason why Polish encounters with exotic cultures were rarely devoid of intermediaries. The third link, a combination of a matchmaker and a duenna, were usually West European institutions. Conrad and Malinowski arrived from the peripheries and, as writers, were condemned to cosmopolitan European identity and a Polish cultural distance; they examined the world from positions which enabled them to apply encounters with the Other for creating new paradigms of ethnographic subjectivity and self-creation'.
EN
The aim of this article is to present the parallels between two well-known figures, the men who were born on the borderlands of nineteenth-century Poland. One of them was an eminent Polish politician, Józef Pilsudski, and the other, a distinguished English writer - Joseph Conrad. Both of them had several things in common, for example: they had been born into landed-gentry families (the so-called 'szlachta'); they were raised in a patriotic atmosphere within the shadow cast by national tragedy of the 1863 Uprising; they assimilated the cult of Polish romantic literature. However, later, their lives differed. Conrad did not believe in a reconstruction of independent Poland. Pilsudski, on the other hand, was the one who substantiated the restoration of the Polish state. Having achieved that, he gained the writer's respect - whereas the politician became a great admirer of the author of Lord Jim.
EN
The titular discussion was held in 2004 at the 'Maison des Sciences de l'Homme' in Paris as part of an international conference on 'The Construction of Perception: Poland -Europe - Africa'. Its topic was Joseph Conrad and his vision of Africa (i. a. the question of colonialism), contained primarily in 'The Outpost of Progress' and 'Heart of Darkness'.
EN
The article refers to ethical aspects of forming writers' roles amidst their ruffled relationship with the Polish community (accusations of treason and departure from the country in the case of Stanislaw Brzozowski and emigration and giving up creation in his native language in the case of Joseph Conrad), a process that results in a conviction that both being and not being a Polish writer is very difficult. The autobiographical texts of both authors confirm that their ideas of literary tasks focus on a few notions: offence, blemish, shame, and oppression. Brzozowski and Conrad's choices depend on the negative influence of ethical rules that mark out a XIX century writer's range of duties. Therefore, the writers' views of their intellectual activity result from the 'ethics of exclusion'.
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