Social advertising, which appeared in Poland after 1989, plays a crucial role in processes of social communication. Although it is still immature, it is becoming a vital element of education of the Polish society. Existence of mass social movements enables articulation of the issues that have been so far a social taboo. The article is an attempt to define a new research field in sociology, involved with social advertising.
A law not only reflects the existing social situation but also plays an important role when the situation changes. The law manifests itself in its conservative aspects, its innovative effects on the social relationships, in the actions taken by social institutions and in the course of social processes. It acts as an independent and dependent variable of social change in society; it is both the cause and the result of a social change. The legal tools of social change legitimize the ongoing social changes and help to enforce them via the authority of law. In the postmodern society with a pluralizing social structure and the growing normative and value-related plurality, law contributes and supports the minimum normative and value-related consensus of society. The law’s regulative, integrative and innovative functions have become necessary in the postmodern society. The increasing complexity of a social life and the need to restore legitimacy of the political system contribute to replacing the executive power with hypertrophy of legislative tools. In the process of post-modernization, law not only reflects and affirms social changes in society but it also becomes more and more important tool of social change.
The article is devoted to the social margin's role in the process of social change. The author aims at defining the concept of marginality and suggesting a typology of social marginality on the basis of social and cultural criteria. She distinguishes social marginality, cultural marginality and socio-cultural marginality. Additionally, she describes psychological marginality as a separate type. Social marginality is typical of people sharing larger society's values but performing only irregular functions in this society. Cultural marginality is characteristic of a group whose values are different than these of the larger society but which performs regular functions in this society. The author emphasizes the potential for incurring change that marginal groups possess: this potential could result in creative impulses or in destruction depending on the configuration of marginality and historical context. The following adaptive reactions of a marginal group could be distinguished: conformism, innovation, ritualization, retreatism or rebellion.
The article is a critique of the approaches in Polish sociology at the turn of 1980s that attempt to study social consciousness through social structure. These approaches are coined 'social structure and attitudes' by the author. He claims that these approaches do not allow reconciling the research on the role of social actor with the analysis of wider trends of society writ large. This results in the inability to account for the mechanisms of social change. The existing approaches describe social structure in Poland as passive and incapable of shaping culture. They do not explain what are the mechanisms linking attitudes and social structure. Referring to Weber's sociology, the author suggests that the crystallization of ethos groups in Polish society can be recognized as one of the structuring processes. Taking several exemplary ethos groups (Catholics, counter-culture movements and democratic opposition) as an example, the author considers their potential role in the process of social change.
In the article written in September 1981 r. the author undertakes an attempt of describing and explaining the processes of change at the turn of the 1980s in Poland, - which are called 'revival movement' in the text - by the application of the one of sociological middle range theories, i.e. the collective behavior theory, social movements theory in particular. Middle range theories posses the generalizing potential, while at the same time they maintain the ability of explaining concrete social processes. The author suggest that the role of theory is to supply the tools for describing the processes of change and explaining their mechanisms. According to the author the possibilities of making predictions are limited in Polish case, however. After drawing three pairs of oppositions that allow describing the revival movement analytically (genetic-current; group-process related; immanent-contextual), the author draws eight hypothesis: (1) sequential accumulation hypothesis; (2) dissociation hypothesis; (3) tolerance threshold hypothesis; (4) diffusion hypothesis; (5) system emergence hypothesis; (6) axiological consensus hypothesis; (7) actions rationalization hypothesis; (8) society's new polarization hypothesis. These hypotheses are designed as the basis for the theory of revival movement.
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The article focuses on the changes in the determination of educational aspirations that took place in the Czech Republic during its social, political and economic transformation. The aim of the article is to contribute to a deeper understanding of the changes in the stratification system after 1989, which were significantly influenced by changes in the causal mechanisms behind the formation of educational aspirations. Those changes in the determinants of educational aspirations were themselves largely driven by the expansion of economic returns to education and thus the increasing significance of education for life success. The empirical research is based on a comparison of data from the 'Family '89' (Rodina '89) survey conducted in January 1989 and the Czech module of the longitudinal survey PISA-L 2003. The analyses were carried out with the hypothesis that the social origin of the background family had a much stronger direct impact on the educational aspirations of adolescents in 1989, while in 2003 social origin had a much stronger indirect influence. The stronger direct impact in 1989 was due to the very limited access to higher education under socialism and the role higher education played in the reproduction of the cultural elite. But with the gradual expansion of, and the rapidly increasing returns to, higher education during the transition period, social origin began to have a largely indirect effect on aspirations, particularly through the value pupils began to place on higher education as a means of ensuring a higher degree of life success. The authors' empirical findings confirm the hypothesis about the change from direct to indirect effects and highlight the importance of researching educational aspirations from a historical point of view and in the context of social change.
The study covers one of the key aspects of Erdei's social strata analysis, that is, the characteristics of the farm-like market towns in the Great Plains. Erdei saw the 'third way' as the only alternative for successful social development of peasantry stepping out from a closed world of community existence. The study points out that Erdei's interpretation is seen rather burdened with an ideological approach. Although the author was been known as the most outstanding scholar of market-town social development (and his work on Hungarian towns may well be considered a standard for town sociology), in certain cases Erdei's typical program action and its value orientation interwoven with his ideological approach also shape the aspects of his book, therefore his strata analysis becomes indefensible. The study also touches upon the fact that the precedents for the concept of the double structure can be observed in his earlier works already in the 1930's, although his ideas had not yet been characterized with his latter approach of double structure. In his approach, Erdei divided the examined society in two possible social strata, as the only preferable social development, and its all possible anti-poles.
Society’s structures are largely determined by the powerful forces operating at its centre, a place which education has never occupied. But education’s content and functions have always responded to the demands of the centre. However, there has been one notable exception to this in the history of education; adult education has, until very recently, sought to respond to the needs of the people rather than to those of the social system. But in recent years even this form of education, like almost all other forms has been changed and the education of adults and higher education have seemed to be converging as education for employability and for employees continuing to keep abreast in the ever-developing world of commercial knowledge is beginning to dominate the educational scene.Consequently, this paper will examine the way in which knowledge has been appropriated and used in the globalised economy of contemporary society. Finally, it will point to the way that lifelong learning has emerged. It has three parts: the first examines globalisation and the knowledge society, the second the nature of knowledge in the knowledge economy and, thirdly, the processes of lifelong learning.
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This article examines the economic and social transformation occurring in post-communist societies, with a particular focus on the emergence of new social risks (NSRs) and the subsequent welfare state responses. It argues that Central and Eastern European countries are characterised by broader NSR types (a mix of old and new social risks) and groups than those present in the West. In order to deal more effectively with the requirements of the post-industrial, knowledge-based, and service economy, the reasons for a new political economy of skill formation and for a new empowering politics of the welfare state capable of strengthening the potential of individuals to adapt to more flexible labour markets are discussed. The new empowering politics of the welfare state proposed here would consist of four main pillars: 1) a guaranteed minimum income; 2) a basic income for children; 3) state investments for education and human capital formation; and 4) a guaranteed basic pension. The aim is to empower the individual through decommodification, childhood investment, human capital formation, and a rebalancing of life risks. The article concludes by reflecting on the political feasibility of this proposal.
In 2010 the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovak Academy of Science achieved the research project to measure the influence of religious missions toward the social inclusion of Roma in Slovakia- the SIRONA Project (Social Inclusion of the Roma by the Religious Pathway). In the beginning we think about methodological approaches of studying subjective perceptions of social change. Later we try to identify the mechanisms influencing the effectiveness/ the ineffectiveness of social change, among others mostly the importance of pastoral discourse and its potential to be pro-exclusive, or pro-inclusive. At the same time we tried to explain this phenomenon from the perspective of social theories of social capital, social networks and social bonds. We come up with the conclusion that religious change has very strong potential to bring about social change which apparently can lead also to social inclusion.
The article marks an attempt at the assessment of changes that have taken place in the rural areas of Poland over five years of its membership of the European Union. The changes attributable to Poland's presence in the European Union can be included in the series of changes that occurred in the country's rural areas in the late 1970s and the early 1980s as well as those brought about by systemic transformation launched in 1989. A look at the Polish countryside from such perspective permits to see it as a dynamic space and to divide the occurring changes into three categories: the category of changes remaining within the scope of the earlier started processes, the category of changes correcting this processes, and the category of changes inaugurating new process. The article consists of two parts. In the first part the authoress describes the influence of EU membership on the long-term transformation processes started in the past: a slow-down in the pace of deruralisation of the countryside and dualisation of agriculture, a faster pace of disagrarisation and re-stratification of the rural community. In the article's second part the authoress deals with the spheres where new phenomena surface - chiefly, the sphere of social awareness (optimism, ambivalent Europeanisation) and the sphere of regulations that create the basis for a new civic character of the rural community.
This paper discusses how Indira Mahindra’s The End Play (1995) represents the effect of social change on women’s ideology and the society surrounding the sequential female generations – the grandmother, the mother, and granddaughter. Hence, each female character represents a different model, thereby representing its own ideology and social position. The paper also explores the effect of social change in relation to issues such as marriage, work, women’s rights, divorce, betrayal, women’s virginity, and the stereotypical images of women – all of which are related to Indian Feminism. However, before embarking on this discussion, it is vital for this critical investigation to identify the concept of ideology, and feminist theories and movements in India.