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Content available remote Muscle torques of lower leg rotators in untrained subjects
Study aim: To determine the relationships between muscle torques of lower leg rotators and rotation angle, and angular position at the knee joint.Material and methods: A group of 171 untrained male subjects aged 19 - 25 years were studied. A specially designed measuring set was used. Muscle torques were determined at -30, 0 and 45° of lower leg rotation, angular positions at the knee joint being 30 or 90°.Results: Rotation angle and angular position at the knee joint, as well as the declared laterality, significantly affected muscle torques of lower leg rotators. Highest muscle torques amounted to 55.2 ± 5.6 Nm (lower leg pronation) and 42.6 ± 7.4 Nm (lower leg supination).Conclusions: The results may contribute to a deeper evaluation of human locomotor apparatus and to reduce the destructive forces acting on the knee joint in athletes and to improve monitoring the functions of reconstructed knee joint in rehabilitees.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two training protocols on the isokinetic performance of athletes. The study was conducted in 38 athletes, (age 23.3 ± 3.6 years) participating in national level leagues of different sports, whose initial concentric hamstrings-to-quadriceps (conH/Q) torque ratio was lower than 0.5. During seasonal testing, an isokinetic measurement of knee extensors and flexors was performed at 60º/s. The athletes were divided into two groups. Nineteen athletes performed the isokinetic training protocol (IT) while the second group of 19 athletes followed the isotonic training protocol (RT). Both protocols lasted 4 weeks. After completing the training protocols, both groups underwent a final isokinetic testing. The isokinetic data revealed significant increases after training in measures of peak torque in both extensor and flexor muscle groups, in both the IT and RT study groups (p < 0.05). There were significant increases (p< 0.05) in conH/Q ratio in both groups after the implemented protocols, but greater in IT group. Consequently, applied IT protocol induced changes in working muscles, thereby restoring detected asymmetry to an acceptable balance more efficiently compared to RT protocol.
Study aim: To compare the effects of 6-week isokinetic and isotonic training programmes on heart rate and blood pressure in high school students.Material and methods: Twenty-nine healthy, untrained male student subjects aged 15 - 18 years participated in the study. They were assigned into 3 groups: control (C; n = 11), and subjected to isokinetic (IK; n = 8) or isotonic (IT; n = 10) training lasting 6 weeks, 3 days a week. Isokinetic exercises consisted of 3 sets of 20-s extensions/flexions (both knees) at 180°/s, spaced by 30-s intermissions, the isotonic ones - of 4 sets of extensions (both knees) at 50% of the predetermined one repetition maximum, spaced by 30-s intermissions. Heart rates (HR) and blood pressure were determined before and after the training period, both pre- and post-exercise.Results: Mean resting HR and exercise-induced HR-increase significantly decreased post-training in IT group (by 19 and 24%, respectively; p<0.001). The exercise-induced HR-increase significantly increased post-training in IK group (by 17%; p<0.001). Significant (p<0.01) training-induced decreases in the systolic pressure (SBP) were found in both training groups (IT and IK, by 7 and 6%, respectively).Conclusions: The results may be of practical importance for athletes and health professionals who administer openchain resistance exercises.
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