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Content available remote „Vymykající se modernizace“
The modern age is characterised by a loss of social solidarity and the growing isolation of the individual, who strives only for personal gain. The result of this is the politically-unmanaged dynamic of the world economy and world society. The author raises the question of how philosophy can contribute to a new strengthening of normative consciousness. To this end she concentrates on Habermas’, or rather Hegel’s, programme of a re-iterated critical reading of religio-philosophical reflections, and of the translation of the contents of faith “from the religious idiom into one that is generally accessible”. She extensively elaborates, as she herself puts it, on the brief explicit appeals made to Hegel by Habermas, working especially with Hegel’s works Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Religion (I, II) and Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Weltgeschichte. Hegel’s interpretation of Christianity, in the author’s view, provides a tool for analysing the genesis of the current crisis of normativity – including the problematic of human dignity, international justice and a just treatment of the sexes – as well as providing possible solutions to these questions.
Hieronim Baliński’s treatise on upbringing a noble boy, written in 1598, commissioned by Jan Łączyński for his son Kasper, has been used in literature for a long time. It is among the best known educational instructions the Old Polish period. Providing his guidance, Baliński showed exemplary education of a nobility boy. Baliński divided it into stages, taking into account the most important elements: religious and moral, physical and mental education. He also showed how to deal with a child and not discourage him from learning. In his opinion, religious education was of greatest importance as it was necessary for a young child to know God, His goodness, patience, mercy and love of human beings. The first stage of education was home schooling after which Baliński recommended a country school, followed by a trip abroad. A boy should take his first trip to Germany at the age of 12 and stay abroad for 2–3 years. According to Baliński, it was a prelude to the main journey which was to take place after a short stay at home. During the break, a young nobleman should be acquainted with the local law, operations of the court and the Parliament. Around the age of fifteen, a young man with a guardian appointed by his father should go abroad once again, this time to Italy, to develop his education and skills. Upon return from the trip, the young man continued education by transition to the adult life. Baliński recommended a court chancellery and military service. In the treatise he points out how a boy should behave towards other people; he also raised issues related to child nutrition and clothing. What is more, Baliński provided tips on physical development and exercises appropriate for children. The major source of Baliński’s treatise was religious literature although he probably referred to Quintilian’s and Mikołaj Rej’s works. According to his own account, Baliński drew on his experience and numerous conversations. The ideal man, as presented by him, bears resemblance to Rej’s faithful and mediocre “kind-hearted man”.
The castle in Kruszwica was built after 1343, at the request of Casimir III the Great. The oldest written sources, Kronika by Jan of Czarnków, dates the construction of the castle back to 1350-1355. The castle hosted the seat of the starost, judiciary authorities and a prison. In 1973-1982, the excavations were located in the central and south-western parts of the Castle Hill. In 2007-2008, the archaeological excavations were moved to the crests of the Hill; in 2010-2011 they were located chiefly near the structures of the castle building, still uncovered in 1973-1982. As a result, relics of the castle house were excavated together with several cellar rooms and fragments of the peripheral wall with remains of a gate. Following the results of stratigraphic and architectural analyses, the results of the research into the movable historic material, coupled with the results of 14C radiocarbon dating, four chronological periods have been identified in the history of the castle in Kruszwica: period I – since the mid-14th c. to 1519; period II – after 1519 to 1591; period III – after 1591 to 1657; period IV – after 1657.
Content available remote Trwanie architektury : od historii do teraźniejszości
Architektura przez wieki trwale towarzyszyła człowiekowi i stała się sposobem oddziaływania na otoczenie. Współistnienie architektury historycznej Salonik z tkanką współczesnego miasta jest przyczyną do refleksji na temat trwania i oddziaływania dzieła architektonicznego w teraźniejszości. Zabytki wywodzące się z różnych stylów i epok uwikłane w przestrzeń miasta, funkcjonują w niej, zachwycając, przekazują idee twórczą do obecnych pokoleń.
Architechture has been a faithful man's companion for ages and has became a way of influencing the surroundings. Co-existance of historical architecture The Saloniki with the modern texture of the city is the source of reflection on existence and innfluence of architectual matter nowadays. The landmarks from various styles and eras embedded in the city's space, functioning within the, mesmerise, transmitting the creative idea towards current generations.
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