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In 1237 the Great Polish duke Wladyslaw Odonic endowed the Order of the Joannites with the village of Korytowo upon the Ina River. The document of endowment has been preserved until our times in two editions, both maintained in their original copies – a shorter one (the original kept in Vilnius) and a longer one (the original kept in Cracow). The longer edition - supplemented with a precise description of the borders of the endowed land - came into being, most probably, in 1238, in the face of disagreement with the Cistercians of Kolbacz. The analysis of handwriting and dictation of both editions allows us to broaden the hitherto known output of the scriptorium of the Joannites in Poznan from the years 1218-1256.
The article presents six known types of the seal of the Gniezno chapter with images of St. Adalbert. Some opinions on the particular types of seals known from the literature are discussed and refuted. Four types are the great seals (types I-IV) and the remaining two are the little seals (types V-VI). Type I and type II were often presented in various publications. Type III, only mentioned briefly in the literature, was wrongly dated to the 14th century. The recently published type IV was wrongly dated to the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries (the times of the archibishop of Gniezno, cardinal Fryderyk Jagiellonczyk). The article describes and reproduces the seal matrix of type IV preserved in Gniezno and two unpublished types of little seals (types V-VI). The great seals present the saint sitting (types I-IV), while the little seals show the saint in the standing position (types V-VI).
The article presents orderly information on the types of medieval and early modern municipal seals of Poznan. The existence of some types of seals described in literature was questioned and data on some other types were verified. Seventeen types of seals, the existence of which can be confirmed in archival materials, are discussed.
Content available remote Some Comments on the Scene of the Foundation from the Paten of Kalisz
The collegiate church in Kalisz features a Romanesque paten from the Cistercian monastery in Lad on the Warta. The depicted scene of the foundation shows St. Nicholas, Duke Mieszko the Old, Abbot Szymon, and monk-goldsmith Konrad. In assorted interpretations proposed by researchers only the duke appears as the donor, with the abbot acting as an intermediary between Mieszko and the saint. Meanwhile, it became apparent that the scene in question includes two donors - Duke Mieszko the Old, holding a chalice and a paten (material gifts), and the abbot, who is portrayed as presenting St. Nicholas with his pastoral, a symbol of the accepted obligation (a non-material gift). The discussed scene probably illustrated an initiative involving both the duke and the abbot of Lekno in the wake of the resolutions passed by the Cistercian general chapter, which in 1191 ordered the liquidation of Lad Abbey on the Warta. The material and religious duties accepted by the duke and the abbot, and guaranteeing the further existence of the abbey - symbolically presented in the scene of the foundation - became the reason why in 1193 the general chapter withdrew the earlier decision. The message of the scene and the context of the accompanying events make it possible to date the paten as originating in 1192.
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