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EN
Acute appendicitis (AA) still remains the most common acute surgical abdominal emergency. Although 90% of cases occur in children and young adults, the incidence in the elderly amounts up to 10% and is constantly rising. The aim of the study was to assess the differences between clinical presentation in the elderly patients with AA compared to the younger patients. Additional aim was to assess the correlation between in-hospital time delays and patients’ outcomes. Material and methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical data of 274 patients admitted to 3rd Department of General Surgery in Cracow between January 2011 and December 2013 due to AA. The elderly group comprised 23 patients aged 65 and above and the non-elderly group consisted of 251 patients. Results. The groups did not differ in symptoms and their duration, type of surgery and its duration. However, time from admission to ED to the beginning of the procedure was significantly lower in the elderly group (575.56 vs 858.9 min; p=0.03). The elderly had longer hospital stay (6.08 vs 4.69 days; p=0.004). In the elderly group the perforation rate was close to reaching statistical significance (26.1% vs 12.4%; p=0.06). No mortality was noted in both groups and morbidity was slightly higher in elderly group (17.4% vs 10%; p=0.26). Conclusions. There was no difference in the clinical presentation between elderly and non-elderly patients group. However, elderly patients presented with a more progressed inflammation of the appendix. The hospital stay was longer in the elderly group, without any mortality and with higher rate of morbidity in this group. The length of the preoperative phase was significantly shorter, confirming the awareness of importance of time in the elderly patients with acute abdomen.
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Content available remote De Garengeot’s Hernia; Acute Appendicitis In An Incarcerated Femoral Hernia
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Acute appendicitis and incarcerated femoral hernia belong to relatively well known surgical diseases with regard to diagnostic workup and treatment. de Garengeot’s hernia is an entity involving concurrent occurrence of both the above mentioned problems. This paper presents history of a 58-year old female patient who was diagnosed with this extremely rare syndrome. She presented to the Emergency Room of a hospital in Żyrardów due to painful mass in the right groin region, persisting for approximately 24 hours. De Garengeot’s hernia, through combination of two separate surgical entities, is associated with diagnostic difficulties and the therapeutic process occasionally requires unconventional decisions to be taken to improve prognosis.
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Content available remote Surgical Treatment of Meckel's Diverticulum
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The aim of the study. Assessment of own research material associated with surgical treatment of Meckel's diverticulum (MD).Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 27 patients managed in the Department of Endocrine and General Surgery of Medical University in Łódź between 1st October 2002 and 31st December 2009 due to incidentally found during surgery and not producing symptoms MD and also operated on for its complications.Results. After excision of MD causing symptoms surgical complications possibly directly associated with the removal of MD were not observed. After prophylactic excision of MD such complications occurred in 2 patients (11.11%). Moreover, in this group we found one death after the operation, but it was not attributable to performed diverticulectomy and was caused by multiple coexisting diseases. In 3 of 14 prophylactically removed and macroscopically normal Meckel's diverticula the presence of reactive inflammation was diagnosed on histopathology.Conclusions. Excision of MD, both producing symptoms and incidentally found, is associated with the low risk of complications. After the recognition of acute appendicitis all identified Meckel's diverticula should be removed, even macroscopically normal, because they can present with the reactive inflammatory process. The method of MD excision depends on intraoperative diagnosis. The risk of MD-related complications may increase with age.
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Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Delay in diagnosis increases the mortality and morbidity. Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the body mass index is useful in diagnosis and whether the neutrophil /lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratios can help in determining the inflammation level of acute appendicitis. Meterial and Methods: Cases of appendectomy performed between June 2012 and December 2018 in our clinic were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the pathology results of the cases included in the study, 4 groups were formed, i.e.: Group 1 (initial stage), Group 2 (catarrhal stage), Group 3 (phlegmonous-gangrenous stage) and Group 4 (perforation). The study compared age, body mass index, leukocyte values, red cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet /lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and mean platelet volume (MPV) between groups. Results: 828 cases were included in the study. When compared between groups, the values of Group 3 and Group 4 were higher than those of Group 1 and Group 2 for PLR and NLR. There was no difference in RDW and MPV values in the blood. When Body Mass Index (BMI) was compared between groups, it was found to be significantly higher with increasing histopathological stage. Conclusion: In acute appendicitis, the blood leukocyte value, elevated PLR and NLR are helpful in diagnosis. We aimed to emphasize that the diagnosis of acute appendicitis is delayed in patients with a BMI above 30 and/or at age of over 40 years, with the perforation rate being determined more frequently.
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Acute appendicitis, one of the most frequent emergencies in general surgery, has been repeatingly investigated with regard to specific aspects such as medical history, clinical symptoms, the perioperative management and follow up. was to investigate relevant and combined determinants for the perioperative management of acute appendicitis a systematic clinical prospective unicenter observational study was conducted. A representative patient cohort was studied (n=9,991; middle Europe) to reflect daily surgical practice through a time period of 27 years divided into 3 separate periods and the frequency of specific categories (e.g., characteristics of the medical history, clinical and intraoperative findings as well as complications), their correlation and relative risk factors for the disease as well as prognosis. Results. 1. The wound abscess rate was 10.9%. Perforation, surgical intervention in time, acute, gangrenous and chronic appendicitis, age, accompanying diseases such as obesity, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sex, and missing pathological finding intraoperatively had a significant impact on the postoperative development of a wound abscess. 2. The longer the specific appendicitis-associated medical history was, the more frequent a perforated appendicitis occurred, greater the appendectomy (AE) rate in a non-inflamed appendix and higher the rate of required second interventions. 3. The average hospital stay was 11 days. 4. There was a significantly decreased percentage of patients with no pathological finding intraoperatively at the appendix vermiformis (p<0.001), who underwent AE, in particular, through the last investigation period from 1997 to 2000 onto only 6.8% (1974-1985, 15.5%; 1986-1996, 10.3%). 5. The mortality was 0.6%, with no significant difference comparing male and female patients (p=1), the three investigation periods (p=0.077), or the patients with AE in non-inflamed appendix (0.4%) and AE in acute appendicitis (0.6%; p=0.515). The study showed a positive, partially significant quality improvement within the presenting clinic with regard to a decreased rate of AE in non-inflamed appendix, wound abscess rate and, in particular, to mortality. Despite this, there is a trendy increase of the perforation rate in the investigated cohort. Conclusion. Quality control remains indispensable for the assessment of the disease´s surgical treatment. A further significant improval of this control might be achieved by multicenter studies and multifactorial evaluations.
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Introduction: Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common indication for emergency surgery and it occurs more often in children and young adults than in patients of advanced age. AA in older patients is a challenging surgical problem because of its atypical presentation. This study was performed to determine whether the age of a patient impacts the outcomes and whether laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) is a feasible method for treatment of patients > 65 years. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective study of 355 patients with AA who were admitted to the Department of General, Minimally Invasive and Elderly Surgery in Olsztyn from 2014 to 2017. The patients were divided into three age groups: 18 to 40, 41 to 65 and >65 years. The histopathological diagnoses were divided into three types: simple AA, phlegmonous AA, and gangrenous AA. Results. LA was performed in 96% of young adults and in 67% of older patients. The patients older than 65 years had higher preoperative white blood cell counts, higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and had a longer length of stay (LOS) than younger patients (P=0.05, P=0.03, and P=0.03, respectively). We found a positive correlation among the CRP levels, open appendectomy (OA), and gangrenous appendicitis. Conclusions: Patients older than 65 years more frequently underwent OA than LA, had higher preoperative CRP levels and had a longer LOS than younger patients. Higher CRP levels were associated with a greater risk of gangrenous appendicitis. LA is a safe and feasible treatment method for patients older than 65 years.
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Acute appendicitis is one of the most common diseases requiring rapid surgical intervention. The disease occurs most often in people between 10 and 30 years of age, the risk of acute appendicitis during the whole life is 6-20%. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of BMI on the quality of life of patients operated for acute appendicitis according to the method of operation (LA- Laparoscopical Appendectomy OA - Open Appendectomy) and follow-up time after surgery. Material and methods. The study was conducted on a group of 86 randomly selected patients- 40 operated conventionally (18 women and 22 men) and from 46 patients undergoing laparoscopy (33 women and 13 men), which were operated during the period between 15 July 2007 and 27 February 2009. Each patient was assessed by BMI, recognizing the value of > 25 kg/m2 as overweight. In this study the basis of quality of life was a form Medical Outcomes Study36 -the Short Form or SF-36v.2. Results. Patients operated on in LA for 6 months observation to better assessed general health (GH) independently of BMI, while those with BMI ≤ 25 better assessed social functioning (SF) (p =0.027), an overall assessment of Physical Component Summary (PCS) (p = 0.048),Mental Component Summary (MCS) (p = 0.022) as well as an overall indicator of quality of life (p =0.025). The relationships that was not found in observations of more than 6 months after surgery (ns). Conclusions. Questionnaire SF-36v.2 facilitated an objective assessment of quality of life of patients operated on for acute appendicitis. Patients operated on by laparoscopic in observation for 6 months above assessed the quality of life regardless of BMI. The relationships that was not found in observations of more than 6 months after surgery (ns).
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Evaluating the effect of variables on diagnostic measures (sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values) is often of interest to clinical researchers. Logistic regression (LR) models can be used to predict diagnostic measures of a screening test. A marginal model framework using generalized estimating equation (GEE) with logit/log link can be used to compare the diagnostic measures between two or more screening tests. These individual modeling approaches to each diagnostic measure ignore the dependency among these measures that might affect the association of covariates with each diagnostic measure. The diagnostic measures are computed using joint distribution of screening test result and reference test result which generates a multinomial response data. Thus, multinomial logistic regression (MLR) is a more appropriate approach to modeling these diagnostic measures. In this study, the validity of LR and GEE approaches as compared to MLR model was assessed for modeling diagnostic measures. All methods provided unbiased estimates of diagnostic measures in the absence of any covariate. LR and GEE methods produced more biased estimates as compared to MLR approach especially for small sample size studies. No bias was obtained in predicting sensitivity measure using MLR method for one screening test. Our proposed MLR method is robust for modeling diagnostic measures of a screening test as opposed to LR method. MLR method and GEE method produced similar estimates of diagnostic measures for comparing two screening tests in large sample size studies. The proposed MLR model for diagnostic measures is simple, and available in common statistical software. Our study demonstrates that MLR method should be preferred as an alternative for modeling diagnostic measures.
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Objective: Cecal diverticulitis may be encountered as a real etiological factor in 1/300 appendectomies. Differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and cecal diverticulitis is crucial because of the different treatment methods. Our aim is to reveal the importance of distinguishing acute appendicitis from cecal diverticulitis. Methods: The data of patients who were admitted to the hospital between 2015 and 2019 with the complaint of abdominal pain and then finally diagnosed with colon diverticular disease, colon diverticulitis, or acute appendicitis, analyzed retrospectively. Results: A total of 19 cecum diverticulitis patients were detected during surgery for acute appendicitis or during clinical and radiological evaluation. 1247 appendectomies were evaluated; the final diagnosis was observed as cecal diverticulitis in 5 patients (0,4%). One hundred nineteen patients diagnosed with colonic diverticulitis at admission were evaluated, while 105 (88,2%) of them had left-sided diverticulitis, 14 (11,7%) of them had solitary cecal diverticulitis. All of the solitary cecal diverticulitis patients were treated conservatively, except one patient who has Hinchey 3 diverticulitis. Conclusion: Differential diagnosis of cecum diverticulitis with acute appendicitis is important because cecum diverticulitis can be managed as conservatively in most cases. In order to prevent unnecessary surgical interventions, this importance has increased, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic period.
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Content available remote The Value of Scoring Systems for the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis
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Accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) is still a problem and is not always easy, even for experienced surgeons. Studies have shown that 20 to 30% of the appendices removedwere normal. Therefore, various scoring systems have been developed to aid in the diagnosis of doubtful cases and reduce the number of unnecessary appendectomies. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of different scoring systems in acute appendicitis. Material and methods. The study involved 94 patients who underwent laparotomy due to suspected acute appendicitis. Medical examination at hospital admission was performed by a resident and a general surgery specialist. The probability of AA was evaluated using six different scoring systems: Alvarado, Fenyo, Eskelinen, Ohman, Tzankis, and RIPASA. The resident calculated the results in individual systems. The decision to perform the operation was taken by a specialist surgeon who did not know the results. Results. Normal appendix was removed in 26% of cases. Eskelinen, RIPASA and Alvarado systems showed highest sensitivity (99%, 88% and 85%, respectively). Tzankis and Fenyo systems showed highest specificity (62% and 50%, respectively). Conclusions. Our study has shown limited value of scoring systems for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The systems may improve diagnostic accuracy as they require obtaining a more detailed medical history, and making a more thorough and organized data analysis. However, the scoring systems should be treated only as an aid to diagnosis
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