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EN
The presented text is a subjective and by no means analytical portrait of a city. In several scenes from the life of Jerusalem, the authoress stresses the tension between the cultural compulsion of 'sacred behaviour' in the city and her own incapability to perform such exalted gestures. She also emphasizes the tension between Jerusalem (with its pressure of Holy History) and Tel Aviv (with its youth and unhampered freedom).
ARS
|
2013
|
tom 46
|
nr 2
171 – 187
EN
In Europe, Calvaries were the substitutes of the sacred place of martyrdom of Jesus Christ. Their importance grew with the development of religious life and the limited possibility of pilgrimages to the Holy Land. The Calvary tradition has medieval roots, but its intensification took place only from the 15th century onwards. In the case of Calvaries, the mathematically thorough topography of Jerusalem, transferred to concrete implementations, showed up to be essential. The paper focuses on the baroque Calvaries built in the Polish-Lithuanian Union (e.g. Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Pakoska or Wejherowska), whose mathematical and topographical authenticity was formed under similar rules.
Asian and African Studies
|
2017
|
tom 26
|
nr 2
319 – 349
EN
The aim of this essay is to present a study about the problem of sacred space in comparing Solomon´s Temple in Jerusalem and the temple-palace in Fengchu (China) around 1000 B.C. and later, together with the situation in the Near Eastern countries, Sumer, Assyria, Canaan (Levant), their writings and concrete buildings. Sacred continua both in sacred space and partly also sacred time in Mesopotamia, Canaan, Judah, Israel, and China are studied here on the basis of available material between approximately 1000 B.C. up to about 450 B.C. The choice of the studied material was selected in order to see the differences between the understandings of the sacred space in the countries of Near East and in China in times when there were no relations between them. This essay points to the differences in the Chinese situation which was very different from that of Hebrew tradition. If sacred space and also sacred time was with the exception at the end of the Shang Dynasty in high esteem in the first up to about the first half of the 1st cent. B.C, and then a more secular approach was acknowledged, among the Hebrews the theocracy of God became to be absolute.
EN
According to a commonplace in scholarly literature it is unachievable to write the history of the Bar Kochba revolt. This paper does not attempt the impossible, it merely attempts to take into account the way in which our evidences, that came in light in the last half-century, repaint the traditional picture of the insurrection. The first five chapters discuss the antecedents of the revolt, i.e. the short and long-term consequences of the churban; the uprising under Trajan (the so-called 'war of Quietus'); the administrative, economic and military situation of Judaea from 70 to 132 C.E., mainly on the basis of the Babatha-archive. The immediate cause of the Bar Kochba revolt is still debated, as both the foundation of Colonia Aelia Capitolina (ch. 5), and the ban on circumcision, introduced by Hadrian's legislation (ch. 6), can be taken into account. It is not clear, however, whether these oppressive measures were taken before or after 132; in other words, whether they were causes or consequences of the war. The following chapter is dedicated to Bar Kochba's messianic pretensions, which, among other things, can be verified with the strong halachic orientation of the papyri produced by the administration of the revolt (ch. 8). Ch. 9 examines the character and magnitude of the Roman military participation in the Bar Kochba revolt, as these are illuminated by the extant epigraphic material. The last chapter deals with the Jewish guerilla tactics and bases: the rebels' hiding complexes that from the 1990's have been explored in the territory of Iudaea.
5
Content available Herod Wielki i „nowa” Jerozolima
51%
PL
The focus of this paper will be on the Jewish experience with Roman art in the late Second Temple period, from Herod’s reign ( 37-4 B.C.E.) to the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 70 C.E. Herodian architecture of Jerusalem, existing in the archaeological artefacts and the writings of ancient authors, is reflective of both full Jewish participation in Roman art and a level of local conservatism
PL
The tombs in Modin, described in 1 Maccabees (13:27-29), written towards the end of the 2nd cent. B.C.E., exemplify Hasmonean dynastic rule in Judaea in the following century. The role of the monument was to underline and manifest the importance of the Hasmonean dynasty in ancient time in Judaea. Moreover, the Hasmonean royal tombs in Modin attest to the participation of Jews in Hellenistic culture, the synonym of culture par excellence in that time. The architectural structure of the Hasmonean tombs crowned with pyramids is not unique in the Hellenistic perspective. For example, monuments topped with pyramids have been discovered throughout the Levant. Among the Jerusalem counterparts of the Hasmonean tombs the so-called Tomb of Absalom, the Tomb of Zechariah or the so-called Tombs of the Kings are particularly important. These architectural modules were distinctive for Judaism until the destruction of the Second Temple. Flavius Josephus, a 1st century Jewish historian,  in his descriptions of the Hasmonean royal tombs gives us the picture of Jewish society of the late Second Temple Judaea, who are fundamentally antagonistic towards images. However, the Hasmonean royal tombs in Modin reflect the visual vocabulary of their time which contains popular elements and symbols of power in the Greco-Roman context. The writings of Joshua Ben Sirah and Flavius Josephus, epigraphic and archaeological evidence suggests that Jews fully participated in the Greco-Roman culture of their general environment.
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