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EN
The Algerian experience was very important in the formation of Bourdieu's social theory. The recently published fragments of an autobiography and L. Addi's analysis of Bourdieu's anthropological theory allow a more detailed evaluation of the contribution of Kabil ethnology to the Bourdieusian conceptualization of the social. The concepts of habitus and social capital both have their origin in the analysis of Kabil peasant economy while they are central to the examination of the reproduction of modern French society. In this way, Bourdieu reduces the differences of modern and archaic society. This difference was constitutive of classical social theory. Bourdieu's social theory shares the 'timelessness' of much modern social theory, including that of Parsons.
EN
Rationality, intersubjectivity, and objectivity have been conceived as primary epistemological categories from the begining of modern epoch. They characterize knowledge or subjects of knowledge, or even their activity - cognition. Epistemocentrism - in P. Bourdieu view typical to modern thinking - and supporting it epistemological fundamentalism are nothing else but limitation of the meaning of these categories. In the bygone times, epistemocentrism was useful, but now is a simply anachronism in the face of modern roles of knowledge in societies and in the face of growing progress of social sciences. Today, science and its contribution in the social worlds are not the same as once. Therefore, the need arises for revision of epistemocentrism as well as for the fulfillment of the 'epistemological gap' which emerged from collapse of epistemological fundamentalism. I think that there is a room for the new 'philosophical partition of reality' emancipated from Cartesian despotism of ego cogito and recovering intuitional insights in the social life of the ancient thinkers as Aristotle. In the paper, I concentrate on thesis that epistemocentrism is an epistemological obstacle in the social sciences and source of their crises.
EN
In this paper, based on two theoretical conceptions, the author presents the most important dichotomy in sociology, agency/structure, which reflects core issue of the opposition between subjectivity and objectivity. The dichotomy is a theoretical approach to demonstrate the relationship between social agents and social structures in which the former operate. In the main part of the text, the author compares Jean-Paul Sartre’s concept of freedom, as a phenomenological analysis of consciousness, which is the starting point for making statement about social agency on the basis of his social ontology, with Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of habitus, which is an attempt to overcome the dichotomy in the field of French sociological theory. Comparing these approaches, the author tries to present their methodological advantage for the study of agency/structure problem, which is the basic criterion applied in their assessment.
EN
Research crossing boundaries between sociology and economics result in new subdisciplines. The most significant ones are economic sociology, institutional economics and rational choice theory. Scholars from these areas strive to justify distinctiveness of their approaches, they stress theoretical advantages of economics as a science, while sociology is regarded mainly as a field of empirical research. Contesting such an approach, the authoress focuses on theories of Talcott Parsons, Niklas Luhmann and Pierre Bourdieu as examples of a 'sociological approach' to economic phenomena. .
EN
The article analyses the Slovak preschool education sector using Bourdieu’s field theory. It describes stable and volatile points in the evolution of preschool education in terms of the power games occurring within the specific social field of power relations shaped during these games. It explores the groups of powerful players that represent the political, civic-professional and academic sub-fields exerting an influence over the preschool field who in different ways and at various times control the preschool field and structure within it the hierarchy of power relations in preschool education governance. The analysis is empirically illustrated; the power relations played out and were renewed when the national preschool curriculum was undergoing fundamental change. It describes the strategies, processes and consequences of changes in the power relations between the sub-fields and the associated behaviour of the actors. The analysis shows how the power conflicts ultimately led to the homologous relations between the sub-fields transforming into democratically-structured power relations in preschool education governance.
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