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In Hungary, the study of the regional innovation systems as networks with the principles and methods of social network analysis (SNA) is a new and central objective. The two most important components of this research phenomenon were tested empirically here. On the one hand, the direction, composition, pattem and spatial properties of the interorganizational relationships of the enterprises in and beyond the economic field were analyzed. It is the investigation of the social - particularly - institutional embeddedness of the economic actors. On the other hand, the whole network structure could be interesting: the overall pattern, the central players and inter-sector relationships between R&D institutions, universities, agencies, chambers, development organizations and clusters. The results give reason for concern: the ratio of interorganizational cooperation is low and one-sided - basically with economic orientation in the region. The composition of the ego-networks of the companies is small and simple with low density. The network of innovation institutions in the region is centralized and breaks up easily without one or two core players.
The purpose of this article is to present the innovation systems and their role in technology transfer in the region. The paper is divided in three parts. In the first part of the article, the author describes topics referring to the concept of technology transfer. The second part focuses on the meaning of the innovation systems, especially regional innovation system, and their influence on technology transfer and the region's development. Finally, the paper analyzes activities of chosen technology transfer centre, its meaning in supporting technology transfer.
Development of innovation capabilities both in research and applied aspects and improvement of institutional structure are main problems in modern economies. Enterprises couldn't create innovations without more institutional and policies support but they couldn't apply effective innovation solutions without a free market (Prahalad, Krishnan 2010, Von Tunzelmann 1995). That is why it seems that economic system functioning and especially economic policy might become a crucial factors determining the nature and dynamics of innovation development processes. Creating new innovation structure (via economic policy) and transfer of technologies should support modernisation processes in companies and creation of development opportunities for the national economy as a whole [Burton-Jones 2001; Dore, Lazonick, O'Sullivan 1999; Varieties of Capitalism 2001[. Those processes should will accelerate technological convergence of low-developed economies. The main aim of the paper is to describe and interpret two processes: 1) the impact of the institutional changes and market environment on the changes in the circumstances of innovation process, and 2) the role of innovation and technology transfer in the formation of the economic system with the support of economic policy.
Recently, the importance of the regional innovation system issue has grown considerably, especially because many regions are currently working on the implementation of an innovation strategy that would create and support innovation activities and processes. In this context, it should be noted that extensive support for the processes of a regional innovation system (or strategy) is frequently associated with the use of public funds. To ensure maximum efficiency for the allocation of resources, it is necessary to have a method that is able to analyse regional innovation systems and their level of development. Such a method has not yet been published. The aim of this paper is to use the weighted sum method to evaluate the effects arising from the existence of regional innovation systems as well as to determine their level of development. This is a completely new approach for determining how developed a regional innovation system is in practice. This case study applies this method using four Czech regions.
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