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There are many disputes about induction in the logic and philosophy of science. One of the problem is that we often use the term 'induction' in the different meanings. This is precisely the point of Aristotle, the first thinker who analyzed induction systematically. The aim of the paper is to show that we are confronted with at least four different meanings of an induction (epagoge) in Aristotle's writings, to analyze them and to show the role of induction in acquiring the scientific knowing and the consequences for the structure and characteristics of Aristotle's system of the scientific knowledge.
I explain how Karl Popper resolved the problem of induction but not the pragmatic problem of induction. I show that Popper’s proposed solution to the pragmatic problem of induction is inconsistent with his solution to the problem of induction. I explain how Popper’s falsificationist epistemology can solve the pragmatic problem of induction in the same negative way that it solves the problem of induction.
Content available remote Argument vs. vysvětlení: případ souvětí příčinného typu
The author analyses five complex sentences of causal-semantic type in order to distinguish between an argument and an explanation in such structurally similar complex sentences. In accord with American philosopher G. R. Mayes (2000), he recognizes differences between them. The presence of epistemic modality in the main clause of a complex sentence can be seen as one of the basic distinctive linguistic signals that differentiates an argument from an explanation. From the pragmatic point of view, an explanation describes causal relations in the real world (speech sphere included), as opposed to an argument, which makes acceptable 'causal relations' in the world of speech. The hierarchy of the argument and the explanation is also the object of scrutiny. Here an argument is understood as a superstructural, additional function that a sentential segment (e.g. an explanation as well) can receive in discourse for various strategic reasons. Finally, the author analyses an eventual correlation of the distinction between an argument and an explanation and inductive and deductive reasoning.
According to the positivists, all our knowledge is based on experience which is the foundation not only of every empirical science, but also of those disciplines that are usually considered to be a priori. The paper consists of two main parts. Firstly, a positivist concept of number defended by J. S. Mill is presented; secondly, it is shown how this conception can settle some objections coming from apriori-oriented philosophers. Mill’s theory of number is interesting for at least two historical reasons. It is developed in connection with a relatively rich scholastic logic which is why its methodology is similar to the contemporary philosophy of language; it is indispensable for an appropriate comprehension of the concept of number that was proposed by Mill’s most famous opponent G. Frege.
This article shows theoretical and practical implications of a research style called Grounded Theory. The paper documents the process of generating theory from qualitative data. The emphasis is put on diverse levels of abstraction experienced by a researcher while analyzing data. An everyday item has been used to help to demonstrate the steps of reflection while executing qualitative analysis. The item is a cemetery bag - an old fashioned brownish bag containing things that attach significance. Therefore, it becomes a signifier for ageing, heterosexuality and gender roles. The bag and the thoughts it triggers help researchers to reflect on their hidden coding mechanisms, which play a vital part in qualitative research. The article concludes with showing several steps in the coding process of Grounded Theory, along with how categories find their way into a paradigmatic model.
Miscanthus sinensis is a promising species for biomass production. Influences of genetic and nongenetic factors on androgenesis induction efficiency were investigated. This is the first report on successful induction of pollen-derived callus in M. sinensis. The callus yield was strongly affected by genotype. A beneficial influence of cold pretreatment of spikes on androgenesis induction was observed. The highest yield of calli was obtained in cultures on a modified C17 medium. The results suggest that the high callus yield might be caused by the late culture initiation. The beginning of anther culture at the end of the flowering season caused a 17-fold increase in callus yield, in comparison to culture initiated at the height of the flowering season (August). It is likely, however, that the efficiency of androgenesis induction in the case of M. sinensis anther culture beginning in October could be related to a positive influence of growing donor plants in conditions of cooler and shorter day, i.e. 11-h day with temperature around 11oC and 13-h night with temperature around 5oC. Results of this study can significantly support the development of effective methods of M. sinensis haploidization, which could be used in crop improvement by breeding.
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