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EN
This communication discusses the situation facing students and graduates taking up new life roles - professional roles and is an attempt to respond to the question of how graduates see their chances of finding employment and if students and graduates are properly prepared for submitting their offers to employers..
EN
During at least the last thirty years in the global labor market significant changes in the preferred qualifications and skills, occupational structure, employment structure and income structure as well as the related to this evolution of the socio-economic functions of work can be seen. A specific polarization of the labor market takes place. The factor that differentiates the situation of individual employees and people who seek work is not only the level of education, its type and quality, but far particular predispositions, attitudes, skills and personal characteristics. The situation of an economically active persons is not an autonomous phenomenon arising only from their qualifications, knowledge, determination and life strategy, but is increasing the result of a globalization distribution - first of all global competition and the rules governing it.
EN
The labor market is not a homogenous category. Its diversity is a consequence of the specificity of the region, its structure and level of development. In order to examine the competitive advantages of local labor markets, in terms of conditions associated with the operation of businesses, one shall specify characteristics determining features the potential of the region. The multitude of these features makes it difficult to choose measures that could enrich picture of diversity of labor markets. This aim of a paper is to assess the spatial differentiation of labor markets from the labor demand perspective. In the paper the taxonomic methodology was applied.
EN
Entrepreneurship is a component of society's human capital that through its capacity to undertake the risk of business activity and the introduction of innovation plays a role in economic development. At the same time, entrepreneurship is influenced by the possibility of choice between employment, with its secure remuneration, and going into business, where potential profits are encumbered by the risk of failure. It is for this reason that the objective of presented studies is to define the degree to which the situation on the labor market had an impact on the entrepreneurship rate in Poland over the 1993-2003 period.
EN
Significant changes in the Hungarian labour market occurred in the 1980-2001 period, with a change in the employment structure as an expression of demand for labour. The proportion of direct production occupations (in industry and agriculture) significantly decreased, and producer and consumer service occupations came to the fore. Meanwhile the average level of education was rising, especially the years of schooling completed by the lowest education groups. Turning to presumed reasons for this, no significant correlation could be shown between technical development and labour-market changes, while the correlation between these effects and years of schooling was negative, so that their effect it was not great. There is no proof for the assumption that the rise in education level can be explained either by technical development or by structural change. It seems rather to be an autonomous process independent of these.
EN
Te purpose of this article is to present the right to work for refugees and persons seeking this status in Poland. Te right to work has been presented as an important element reducing social exclusion of persons seeking international protection. Te text is divided into two parts. In the frst part we present law assuring access to work under international law, European Union law and the Polish law. Te legal analysis is divided into two stages. Te frst stage refers to the determination of the rights of people applying for a refugee status, the second indicates the rights of refugees. Te second part discusses the results of the survey conducted on access to work among these groups in Podlaskie.
EN
The changes on the Polish labor market are influenced by two processes: 1) the systemic change from socialist toward market economy and 2) globalization. Privatization and restructuring of the socialist economy are the most important factors of the first process. Both of them, from the point of view of the labor market analysis, have disadvantages - like high unemployment rate and advantages - changes in the occupational status (the emergence of new categories: employers and self-employed) and in proportion of the employed within various sectors of the economy (decrease in industry and agriculture,increase in service). Ali the above-mentioned processes connected with systemic transformation are visible through the National Census data. However, these data did not provide any insight to globalization processes. Given occupational classification as well as description of economic activities do not allow for the analysis of the modern services industry's emergence.
EN
Important changes took place in rural areas as a result of economic transformation and access of the state to the European Union. The position of the rural population in the labor market has changed. The character of these changes can be determined by analyzing economic activity of the population in different temporal profiles. In the paper economic activity of the population of rural areas in 2001 and 2011 was compared. The study contains the population aged 15 and over. Categories of employed and unemployed persons composing together the labor resources and economically inactive persons were took into consideration. In the first part of the paper economic activity of the urban and rural population was compared by using, activity of employment and unemployment rates among other methods. Analysis showed that differences between economic activity of the urban and rural populations visible in the 1990s are practically non-existent today. A comparison of economic activity of the rural population in 2001 and 2011 shows that participation of economically active persons was diminished and economical inactivity increased. Amongst the economically active population the percentage of employed persons increased. Socio-economic features of employed persons have changed. We can see an increase in the level of education of employed rural inhabitants. Amongst employed persons the percentage of the population not connected with agriculture has decreased, but in industry and services it has increased. In relation to this, employment status has changed. Participation of the self-employed has diminished but participation of employees and employers has increased. However, changes in the labor supply are not accompanied by changes in demand for labor. Stimulation of local markets, mainly by enterprise development, is indispensable.
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Content available remote Influence of the Education on the Level of Unemployment in European Countries
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EN
The results of an empirical survey on the relationship between unemployment rate and selected macroeconomic indicators are presented. The goal of the analysis was to verify the hypothesis on significant correlation of the level of unemployment and the society's level of education. In addition, an investigation on the strength of the relationship between unemployment level and education linked with labor policy was conducted. Two hypotheses were investigated. The first one states that within the group of 29 surveyed countries separate subgroups, internally coherent can be distinguished. The second hypothesis postulates that the unemployment rate depends stronger on the level of expenditures and other indicators linked to education or development than on active labor market policies.
EN
Educational diagnostics may be defined as the theory and practice of recognizing context, progress, and outcomes of learning. It is a relatively new branch of knowledge still searching for a cardinal scientific paradigm: informal or standardized, dealing with class disruptions or monitoring student development. Labor market as the place for selling and buying jobs and vocational positions constitutes a far-reaching target for education. Graduates from schools and colleges bring there their human capital, containing competences, knowledge, experiences, skills and similar assets. Taxonomies of educational goals – emotional, world-view, cognitive, and psychomotor – put the elements of human capital in the following order: (1) motivational domain, (2) moral domain, (3) experiential domain (4) physical domain. With this approach human capital becomes a learning task for students and their ability to learn gained in education becomes the most important manpower characteristics.
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EN
The process of the standardization of the economic structure in the eastern and western lands of the Federal Republic of Germany has, nonetheless the strong involvement of the state over two decades, not been completed yet. This is confirmed by the diversified situation in the labor market in both parts of the country, which is much more difficult in the eastern regions. The reduction of long-term unemployment that stays at a relatively high level somehow contrary to the implemented labor market reforms and favorable market development during the years 2005-2008 is the most urgent task.
EN
The Hungarian government increased the minimum wage from HUF 25,500 to HUF 40,000 in January 2001. One year later, the wage floor rose further to HUF 50,000. The paper looks at the short-run impact of the first hike on small-firm employment and flows between employment and unemployment. It finds that the hike significantly increased labour costs and reduced employment in the small-firm sector and adversely affected the job-retention and job-finding chances for low-wage workers. While the conditions for a positive employment effect were mostly met in depressed regions, the spatial inequalities were amplified, rather than reduced by the measure.
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Content available remote Teoria płacy efektywnej
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EN
The aim of this article is to identify the main elements of the efficiency wage theory. The contents of the article are divided into two sections. The first section is devoted to the wage-productivity curve. The second section of the article concerns the formal efficiency wage model.
EN
Raising the minimum wage on the labour market has direct effects on supply and demand. But its indirect effects extend beyond the labour market. They are analysed here with a macro model that distinguishes three types of work and ten industries, whose firms differ in their price structures and the degrees to which tax and social-insurance payments are avoided. Raising the minimum wage generates tension on the labour market and reduces employment of the unskilled. Since the price level rises faster than average pay and aggregate employment falls, so does real consumption. The firms' profits and investment decline, but the former can be offset even by a small increase in tax avoidance. Although the rise in the minimum wage boosts tax revenues, budgetary expenditures rise more and the balance deteriorates. Advocates of a higher minimum wage need to consider these consequences if they are to reach a responsible decision.
EN
The causes and conditions of the forming the so-called flexible labor relations and appropriate forms of employment in the labor market of Western countries in terms of certain economic difficulties in the 60s of the XXth century are analyzed. Furthermore, on the basis of these experiences, the importance of these flexible forms of employment to maintain employment in conditions of mass dismissal of the labor force affected by the current economic crisis is studied.
EN
The fixed employment for an indefinite term previously typical of industrial society (bolstered by various privileges and safeguards) has been declining in the last decade or two. There has been an unstoppable spread by various forms of atypical employment, ranging from agency labour to remote working at back-up offices in the Third World. The article places atypical work within the conceptual frames of the new institutional school, emphasizing the diminishing human-capital specificity in employment relations. The 'loosening' of work - the decomposition in time and space of concentrated factory work - is a change comparable in importance to the appearance of the factory system. 'Loosened' work is a logical consequence of the development patterns in the knowledge economy. According to the logic of information technology, modules making up production processes (like the cells of economic organizations) gain independence; each leads a life of its own, with infinite combinatory possibilities opening up. The same trend appears in the work field, where firm, tied, static, 'safe' forms become changeable, 'fluid', dynamic and uncertain. This gives a boost to the knowledge economy, as nomadic employees take their expertise with them from one project, economic unit, country or region to the next. The other side of the coin, however, is that employees (other than key personnel with the fundamental competencies) become interchangeable, disposable, recallable and transferable - in a word, insecure.
EN
In the given article the research of tendencies and condition of the regional labour markets of Poland for the period of 1995-2004 is made. The models of the moving average (MA) with intervention for the analysis of dynamics of unemployment rate in all districts (voivodeships)-administrative areas of Poland were constructed and the analysis of unemployment rate jumps after joining EU was carried out. The received estimations of parameters for intervention show different reaction of the regional labour markets to the changes of external conditions. The model of dynamics of the gross domestic product share of voivodeship was constructed, the existence of the various fixed regional effects and influence of lagged values on gross domestic product of voivodeship was shown. On the basis of results of intervention parameters estimations and fixed share of the gross domestic product in voivodeship the dependence was constructed that reflected the influence of a regional fixed share of voivodeship GDP and a level of its competitiveness on size of unemployment rate jump in regions of Poland since the beginning of 2003. Thus, it is possible to show, that the higher the regional fixed share of voivodeship GDP the lower was unemployment rate jump. In opposite, the more advanced level of region competitiveness stimulated the increasing of unemployment rate jump. Further, on the basis of the econometric analysis the factors determining the potential of labour markets of Poland in a regional section were revealed, also the influence of employment structure and enterprises specialization on the formation of regional total product was shown, the structural changes of potential of the regional labour markets potential were investigated. The results of the given research show the opportunities of modern statistical methods use for substantiation of the evident problems, for development of the strategic plans for coordination measures in the labour market both for the country as a whole, and individual voivodeships.
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EN
The inspiration for this article is the increasing number of businesses being established by Poles in Germany, especially in the eastern part of the country. The authors’ aim is to research the strategies of Polish entrepreneurs behind the western border and to point out the forms of their participation in the German labor market. We base our narrative on individual interviews with the experts in the field of transnational entrepreneurship, and we discuss the motivations and the competitive advantages of Polish entrepreneurs. We describe their barriers and reflect on the future of Polish entrepreneurship in Germany. As the context, we employ sociological theories relevant in the field of migrations and entrepreneurship and look at statistical data illustrating the activity of Polish entrepreneurs in the Polish-German cross-border area. We answer questions about their ways of functioning there from the viewpoint of representatives of companies, institutions and organizations supporting them. In the article, we base our findings on the knowledge, opinions and predictions of our experts.
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EN
The level and quality of life of people depends on many factors, micro and macro. Significant impact on the regional differences in quality of life of the population have macroeconomic factors, among which mentions, inter alia, the employment situation and unemployment. Objective of the study will assess regional differences in the labor market and its connection with quality of life in the Polish regions.
PL
W artykule skoncentrowano się na analizie migracji edukacyjnych związanych z podejmowaniem studiów wyższych oraz konsekwencji, jakie mogą nieść dla lokalnego rynku dóbr i usług oraz rynku pracy miasta akademickiego. Konsekwencje te zostały ukazane dla jednego z miast akademickich w Polsce – dla Opola, w którym studia podejmuje ponad 25 tys. studentów, przy czym ok. 90% z nich to migranci edukacyjni, i które charakteryzuje się jednym z najwyższych w Polsce współczynników liczby studentów w stosunku do liczby mieszkańców. Analiza została przeprowadzona w oparciu o wyniki badań empirycznych prowadzonych wśród kwotowo dobranej grupy 1075 studentów wszystkich uczelni wyższych w Opolu.
EN
The aim of the article is to analyze educational migration related to undertaking higher education and its consequences for the local market for goods, services and labor in an academic city. These consequences have been shown for Opole – one of the academic cities in Poland, where more than 25 thousand students take up tertiary education, of which approx. 90% are educational migrants, and which has one of the higheststudent-to-inhabitant ratios. The analysis was conducted based on the results of empirical research conducted among a group of 1075 students of all universities in Opole selected based on quota sampling.
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