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EN
The author presents a criticism of the laws of metaphysics as were presented by Immanuel Kant in the so-called pre-critical phase of his activity. According to Kant, these laws constitute the so-called God's arrangement of the world.
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In the paper, the categories of aspect are discussed and two kinds of philosophical stance towards it are pointed out. Then criticism of them is performed in relationship to contemporary cognitive science.
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A brief critique of the notion of sensorium (introduced to philosophy mainly by Newton) is presented. It is proved, that sources of that notion may be traced back in Descartes' philosophy, particularly in concept of knowledge of the subject's corporeality.
EN
The authoress presents an extraordinary critique of contemporary social relationships. This critique is based on mystical, philosophical (particularly on the idea of Anthropos), and literary premises.
EN
The aim of the paper is to call attention to the opposition inherent in Hannah Arendt's work, and to demonstrate the relevance of the opposition for modern culture, education and pedagogical thought. Following Arendt, the authoress emphasizes on the constitutive colognes of human existence, life and the world, and traces the history of their complex relationship. Its history began at the end of antiquity, turning multifarious in the modern era having changed its character completely by now. The paper is concluded with a reference to the crisis of culture, due to the privileged status of life at the price of worldliness. Obviously, the crisis has also affected education. It turns out, however, that the education, specifically understood, may be not only subject to the crisis but also a chance for its overcoming.
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Content available remote INTUITION AND THE GROUNDS OF MATHEMATICS (Naocznosc a podstawy matematyki)
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EN
The paper deals with the issue of the nature of mathematical objects. The author discusses them in the perspective of intuition (as derived from Kant). The main issue consists in the presentation of these objects to human mind.
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EN
Looking back, both of the two great ancient civilizations in the world, China in the East and Greece in the West, benefitted from philosophies that evolved almost simultaneously: Taoism and Mo-Tzu Confucianism in the East, and the trilogy of Socratic, Platonic, and Aristotelian thought in West. This exploration of philosophy in Europe, from the movement into the Renaissance in the fifteen century in Italy to industrialization in the eighteen century in England, the ancient Greek civilization blos¬somed, and the value of the different philosophical thoughts and opinions concerning the livelihood of mankind and demands on the human being were honed until they reached the achievement of democracy. In China, by contrast, over several thousand years from Huang Di to the latest pres¬ident Xi Jinping, Confucian principles remained constant for the most part, with President Xi declaring at the first meeting at which he officially presided in November 2012 that “we are undertaking our Renaissance.”33 It is very late in the course of human history to proclaim it, and this re¬flects that China lags behind the Western world. The reason for this is that the autocratic values of Confucian thought have remained constant and not changed into the democratic values of Socrates, Plato and Aris¬totle that in turn precipitated more modern philosophical thoughts and forms of governance during and since the Renaissance.
EN
The paper begins with some fundamental principles of philosophy of man and theory of values in the works of Karol Wojtyla. On this background the social philosophy of John Paul II has been analysed, as it was developed in four encyclicas: 'Redemptor hominis', 'Laborem exercens', 'Sollicitudo rei socialis' and 'Centesimus annus'.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2021
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tom 76
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nr 6
391 – 406
EN
The paper analyses four different aspects of abduction when used in science and philosophy. As a preliminary step, it presents the main kinds of abductive arguments in terms of their logical form and extra logical criteria of evaluation. Subsequently, it discusses the standard functions of abductive inference. Finally, it pays attention to four levels of difference in comparing the use of abduction in science with that in philosophy. In particular, it is argued that the difference between abduction in science and philosophy involves the distinct kinds of hypotheses, a different notion of explanation, a difference in the contexts of abductive reasoning, and different criteria for the hypothesis-selection.
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Content available remote GERMAN SPIRITUALITY THROUGH THE EYES OF POLISH POSTWAR INTERPRETERS OF THE TOPIC
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EN
This article deals with the issue of the spiritual roots of National Socialism in Germany. Coinciding with the sixtieth anniversary of the end of the Second World War, the study examines some views of Polish scholars Leon Halban and Bogdan Suchodolski, who authored several publications on this subject. Professor Leon Halban (whose works include 'Religia w Trzeciej Rzeszy' (Religion in the Third Reich), 1936; 'Problem kultury niemieckiej' (The Problem of German Culture), 1946; 'Religia starogermanska i jej aktualne znaczenie w Niemczech' (The Old German Religion and Its Current Significance in Germany), 1949), believed that the course of events in Germany was determined by a transformation of religious life in that country, which was connected with a crises within Christianity there. Professor Bogdan Suchodolski (author of 'Dusza niemiecka w swietle filozofii' (German Soul in the Light of Philosophy), 1945 and 1947) condemned all of German culture, which he evaluated through the prism of the philosophy of the German nation. In the opinion of the present author, the research undertaken by both scholars demands further investigation, as some of the issues which they discussed are still today of significance.
EN
The author discusses the problem of evil defined by Paul Ricoeur, Jean Nabert and Gabriel Marcel as the basic aspect of human existence. The aim of the article is to analyse the writers' definitions of evil, its origins, how it is possible, ways of reacting on evil and dealing with it. The author compares the viewpoints present in the works of the philosophers under discussion. Paul Ricoeur, the representative of existential phenomenology and hermeneutics, combines philosophical antropology and the analysis of human activity with the problem of human possibilities and weaknesses. He saw evil as the manifestation and result of an individual's freedom. Gabriel Marcel, philosopher and playwright, did an phenomenological analysis of an individual set against today's mass world with evil as one of its components. Jean Nabert, the representative of reflective philosophy, discussed human consciousness, especially an individual's negative experiences, sin and absolute evil. The three standpoints seem to make up one concept, as all of the writers understand an individual as the victim or cause of evil.
EN
The paper deals with Horkheimer’s view on the relation between philosophy and the sciences. It also presents his ideas concerning the aims of study as well as discusses his account of authentic education. These problems are addressed not abstractly, but in the context of Horkeimer’s social and historiosophic diagnosis and prognosis. Moreover, the authoress shows the difference between the results of the Critical Theory and the conceptions grounded in tradition. The main thesis of the paper manifests itself in statement that Horkheimer’s remedy for the crisis of the European culture is the philosophical self-reflection; in other words, he postulates the primacy of philosophy in respect to sciences, that is, wisdom in respect to knowledge.
EN
Introducing the issue of the beginnings of life into the realm of scientific research posed a danger to 'valid' structures of knowledge (in particular, to the separation of philosophy and the sciences). For a couple of tens of years, (some) scientists have paid for dealing with this issue with ignoring the 'touchy' problem of its 'extra-scientific' groundings. This strategy proved to be erroneous. Similarly, the attempts at summarizing the whole discipline as one theory (although under different names) with the model of 'Darwin's small pond' (the model, as is shown, has been in many accounts substantially modified) are invalid. In the discipline, there is something common, and it is statement philosophical in character: that the life is an emergent feature of matter.
EN
The author discusses philosophical context of arts on the example of natural sign and painting, underlying the fact that today, when aesthetics is a well grounded philosophical discipline, one tends to forget that before this discipline emerged in an explicit way, intersections between visual arts and philosophy had been rare.
EN
The presented text, prepared for a scientific conference on the philosophical work of W. Stróżewski and W. Tatarkiewicz, presents an analysis of selected issues regarding the concept of phenomenology implemented in the work of W. Stróżewski. It is an original concept, the essence of which boils down to an attempt to combine broadly understood classical philosophy with many threads of the various proposals by representatives of the phenomenological position. The understanding of phenomenology proposed by W. Stróżewski is an important voice in the discussion about the scope of possible applications of the phenomenological method in contemporary philosophical research. It can also become an important source for in-depth studies on the essence of phenomenology itself.
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Content available remote Czy filozofia ma dziś jeszcze coś do powiedzenia?
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EN
Scientific knowledge endows contemporary human with spiritual power allowing them to control the nature. Scientific results can be used in various domains of life. Philosophy, in turn, might be regarded as knowledge which is rather useless. In spite of that, one may ask the question: what is the meaning of philosophy for human life? The author argues that philosophy understood as inquisitive thinking which penetrates the reality evokes in us metaphysical sensitivity. Philosophy understood as theoretical thinking motivates us to disinterested search for truth. Finally, philosophy taken as critical thinking contemplates the limits of our knowledge and tries to liberate humans from ideology.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2019
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tom 74
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nr 4
334 – 342
EN
The essay describes the various opportunities when to use the world timeliness. It understands topicality as an attribute that has arbitrary interpretation and is used with arbitrary meaning. He asks what factual reasons philosophy has if it is called actual. The main link is the devastation of the natural environment, which brings enormous and risky environmental consequences.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2019
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tom 74
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nr 5
394 – 404
EN
The essay describes various opportunities in which to use the word timeliness. On the basis of three historically different opinions it shows how different and situationally dependent is the timeliness speech of philosophy. The aims of this speech do not come from the philosophy itself, but from the side purposes. Claims about the topicality of philosophy do not concern any philosophical value, but stem from the will and intentions of the authors. Therefore, timeliness cannot be one of the criteria of philosophy.
EN
In this article I examine the interpretation of Nicholas of Cusa’s thoughts proposed by Ernst Cassirer. In his historical and philosophical research on the philosophy of this medieval thinker, the disciple of Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp combines, in a creative manner, cultural symbolism with epistemological foundations of neo-Kantianism of the Marburg school. His image of Cusanus is that of a person infatuated with science, especially mathematical geometry, a theologian, part of the canon of the medieval epoch and also the precursor of the ideas of the Renaissance.
EN
The paper outlines a brief history of the role of logic as it has been conceived in the system of European science, scholarship and culture. It also tries to answer the question, in which of those roles logic approved itself and in which it did not. Further, it examines the role that logic plays in our times, as well as its relation to the contemporary philosophy.
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