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1
Content available remote Princip individuace materiálních jsoucen v díle Tomáše Akvinského
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EN
The paper deals with Aquinas' concept of the individuation of material beings. The author tries to show that Aquinas throughout his whole scholarly career held the view that designated matter is the principle of individuation for corporeal beings. However, Aquinas had changed (many times) his view concerning the kind of dimensions involved in individuation, i.e. dimensions that make matter to be undivided. The author turns to a number of texts where Aquinas addresses the problem in order to show his changes of view and in order to properly elucidate Aquinas' solution.
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Content available remote Ukrajinská otázka v českém meziválečném myšlení a politice
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nr 4
539-558
EN
From its very beginning, the young Czechoslovak Republic had to delimitate itself in regard with unsettled circumstances in the Central and East European region. With assistance from governmental places, the Czech lands became one of the main centres of the Ukrainian exile life in the interwar period, which would have been impossible without the personal attitude of President Masaryk. Approach to the Ukrainian issue, as a political programme, passed through a test in Carpathian Ruthenia, where the Czechoslovak governments struggled. To the mid-20th century, they were pro-Russia oriented, but later they preferred the Ukrainian course. However, they viewed each manifestation of Ukrainian nationalism as an element threatening with separatism. The Czech political scene was divided in its attitude towards the Ukrainian issue, distributed according to its right-wing and left-wing policies. The socialists, close to the Castle, approved of the Ukrainians' right to their self-determination, while the conservative forces preferred Russia within its old boundaries. This scheme corresponded with the pre-war ideological division of the Czech policy. With the 30's, the Czech view of the Ukrainian emigration and its ambitions became politicized. The international situation, uneasy cohabitation with the Polish neighbour, growing aspirations of the Czech foreign policy to become closer to the Soviet Russia and escalation of nationalistic disputes in the easternmost region of the republic proved to be the main factors. Shortly before the German occupation of Bohemia and Moravia, Prague had to witness victory of the Ukrainian ideals in the autonomous Carpathian Ruthenia.
EN
The paper deals with a type of whole and a part that can be found in Aquinas' work and to which no attention has been paid so far. This type of whole and a part can be called metaphysical whole and metaphysical part, respectively. In the paper, metaphysical whole and a part are put forth on the problem of the logical and metaphysical structure of a common nature.
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Content available remote F. Suárez o povaze počtu
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EN
The paper deals with Suarez's concept of a number as it is put forth in his famous Disputatines Metaphysicae. Suarez's explanation is led by the standard scholastic question with regard to the nature of a number, namely whether a number is the real species of a quantity. Suarez answers the question in a negative way and his main opponents are in this respect Thomists. Suarez rejects the Thomistic concept of a number according to which a number is the real species of a quantity. Suarez's argument is based on the claim that a number is not a being (ens) per se and that is why the Thomistic thesis is not valid. According to Suarez, a number is (broadly speaking) an aggregation of units, which of itself does not have a sufficient type of unity in order that it could constitute a being per se. However, a number has some kind of unity but the unity of a number comes from the cognitive act of our reason which subordinates an aggregation of units under some concept. Only if we consider an aggregation of units with this kind of unity can there be strictly speaking (or formally speaking) a number, e.g. the number of the apostles. A number taken in a formal way then somehow belongs (but not in the strict sense of a word) to the species of a quantity.
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The paper deals with three different concepts of Divine knowledge (Dominican's, Jesuits', Leibniz's), as well as with the relationships of these doctrines to the problem of self-determination and to the Divine choice of the best possible worlds. Firstly, three different concepts of Divine knowledge are explained and the emphasis is put on the impact of the scholastic's tradition on Leibniz's conception of Divine knowledge. Secondly, some relations and links among the three different concepts of Divine knowledge and the doctrine of self-determination are brought to light and evaluated. Thirdly, the author shows how strongly was Leibniz's concept of the 'necessitas moralis Dei ad optimum' inuenced by the the Sevillian Jesuits' school.
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Content available remote Pojetí metafyziky podle Tomáše Akvinského
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EN
The paper deals with Aquinas' concept of metaphysics. Firstly, the author explains what science is according to Aquinas, and which place belongs to metaphysics within Aquinas' division of the theoretical sciences. Secondly, the subject of metaphysics is determined in order to show the character of metaphysics. Aquinas' commentaries on Boethius' De Trinitate and on Aristotle's Metaphysics are examined as two of the most important texts on this problem. Thirdly, the author tries to explain and harmonize Aquinas' two different definitions of first philosophy.
EN
Systematic exposition of the concept of number cannot be found in Aquinas' works. Nevertheless, there are many places where the problem is touched. The problem is encountered on the one hand within the discussion of the category of quantity and on the other hand when Aquinas speaks about transcendental concepts and deals with the problem of numerical statements concerning God. The aim of the paper is to reconstruct, on the basis of Aquinas more or less fragmentary ideas, his concept of number.
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