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EN
The starting point of the authoress' considerations is the thesis that cultural heritage performs a particular role in national identification, particularly in this day and age. It seems from her observations that most of society associates cultural heritage with huge buildings, museum-pieces, and monuments, with tangible objects, whereas in fact it consists of everything that surrounds us, from artefacts to religion, language, literature or music. Memory and its cultivation should also be regarded as a part of cultural heritage, because they provide a basis of every activity and without memory, political, historical or sociological manipulations deprive a nation of identity. The sooner we realise what cultural inheritance is, what the identity is, replying to such questions as: 'Who am I', and 'How do I differ from everybody else?', the sooner we will present ourselves to the world as a nation deeply rooted in history and culture. Differences among theorists who tackle the subject of cultural inheritance in the age of globalisation are outlined. Some regard it as being focused on 'the protection of folklore, own tradition, language or dialect'. There are also those for whom it carries the hope for both modernisation and the overtaking the most developed countries by implementing Western culture templates as symbols of advance or emancipation. One thing is certain, however, this process has not erased the symbols of cultural heritage but rather has consolidated it. States, regions, and cities are able to cultivate to perfection cultural heritage and tradition without rejecting modernism and innovation while they remain open to the world. So, instead of becoming indignant at globalisation, we should draw on, and assimilate those experiences, which could most effectively influence the way our heritage is protected. This process, however, should not be regarded as a threat, but rather as a means of understanding, what the heritage, culture and tradition really mean to the nation.
EN
The article discusses funerary customs characteristics of Ragusa in the late Middle Ages on the basis of funeral descriptions included in the book entitled Situs aedificiorum, politiae et laudabilium consuetudinum inclitae civitatis Ragusi. The text was written at the turn of the 1440s by Philip de Diversis, born in Lucca and teaching in Ragusa. It represents the late-mediaeval genre of laudes civitatum, aimed at praising the town. It is addressed to Ragusa nobles, members of the Great Council. It is divided into four parts, devoted to: the convenient location of the town, its important edifices, both sacred and secular, the typology and functions of the town’s offices and armed forces, and a wide presentation of the town’s customs, both religious and secular, including funeral ceremonies. Diversis focuses on describing ceremonies connected with the death of patricians. Characteristic features of Ragusan funerals were: a procession through the streets of the town, a service in the cathedral, an important element of which was a valediction praising the deceased person, and a several-days-long feast attended by the members of the social class of the deceased. Diversis notes the special role of women in local funerals, describing patrician women walking in corteges and the loud laments of hired mourners. After the funeral and the service the women of the deceased person’s family mourned and feasted in their honour in seclusion for many days. The men, on the other hand, gathered to feast in the late person’s house and stayed there for three days. All the rituals described by Diversis reflect the intention the cultivate the memory of the deceased member of the community; they also highlight the significant and characteristic role of the feast in commemorative practices. The author noted the presence of representatives of the patriciate and of the town council; he also stressed that it was only Ragusa nobles that had a right to be commemorated with a mass in the most important locus sacer of the town. The patriciate was also represented at the funerals of town clerks, which was a way to commemorate and honour those who had served the town and its citizens. The author stressed that the customary ritual was different when the deceased person was a victim of an epidemics. In his description of funeral ceremonies Diversis did not mention the town cemetery; in another place he wrote that town citizens were buried the churches of the Dominican and Franciscan orders. It is certain, however, that those churches could not have been the only burial places in the town. The author disregarded the role of religious fraternities in funeral ceremonies, which was probably aimed at foregrounding the role of the patriciate in those celebrations. The author of the article pays special attention to the description of the funeral of one of Hungarian kings. By organising this ceremony the Ragusa nobles probably wanted to manifest their connections with the majesty of a Christian monarch. During the ceremony they acted as this part of the town community that was responsible for commemorating the dead king.
EN
Culture as a very complex phenomenon of multiple meanings is an integral part of the educational reality. In this article we highlight the different contexts of culture and education and their relationship. We analyse culture as a part of the learning environment and one of the external determinants influencing the educational process. Given the anthropological background of culture and education we raise the question of "educated man" and the need to educate.
EN
The paper discusses different approaches to the problems of knowledge transfer. Factors that influence cross-cultural knowledge transfer are presented. It can be argued that the impact of national culture on the transfer of knowledge is less than the influence of such elements of the transfer process as the number of channels used, the source’s willingness to share knowledge, the sender’s willingness to acquire knowledge, the absorption capacity of the receiver and to what degree knowledge resources are transformed.
Filo-Sofija
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2011
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tom 11
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nr 1(12)
347-350
EN
The aim of the thesis is an attempt to applicate Jerzy Kmita’s theory of culture into the issues included in the domain of intimacy. The first part of the paper is focused on intimacy as a part of culture. To be precise, if the concept of culture is understood after Kmita, it follows that, intimacy is considered as a set of norms and directives respected by the community and regulating intimate praxis in rational-subjective terms. The second part of the thesis is concentrated on the conception of “pure relationship” created by Anthony Giddens, which constitutes one of the most interesting approaches of describing contemporary tranformations of intimacy. Although, the author agrees with most of Giddens’ ideas, he perceives the conception of “pure relationship” as one-sided. Theory of culture created by Kmita, especially the idea of functional and aubjective-rational explanation, is used as a tool to indicate methodological mistakes, which are the reasons for sidedness of Giddens’ perspective.
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Content available remote PROBLEMS WITH DELIMITING THE NOTION OF TRANSCULTURALITY IN LITERARY STUDIES
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EN
The global turn in literary studies brings the necessity of looking for new ways to analyse literature and literary history, and to reframe the categories we use to describe it. Transculturality, though in use for the past 30 years, still seems one of the freshest and most promising terms to use in a newly profiled literary study. However, recent publications have proved that the meaning of the term is at best unstable – transculturality is being used in the different, sometimes contradictory ways. This article focuses on some of the issues that one may face when dealing with the notion of transculturality.
EN
The author addresses an issue placed in-between cultural anthropology and the philosophy of education. Referring to the current discourse on the impossibility of maintaining the image of a lack of connection between economics and ethics, the author presents the relationship between economic exclusion and the objectification of the excluded which reduces them to "biopolitical mass" status. A particularly worrying consequence of such an anthropological reduction is the adaptation of an educational strategy oriented toward progressively limiting the reproduction of symbolic culture.
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Content available remote Społeczno - ekonomiczne uwarunkowania turystyki kulturowej
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EN
The article covers the issue of cultural tourism in the social-economic aspect. It points out to the place, in the financial involvement of the country’s budget, where cultural tourism is situated. It presents its influence on the state’s revenue and labor market (tour leaders, tour reps, transport and catering companies). The research shows that the state does not treat tourism as its priority. Such an approach is contradicts the program promoting, e.g. the idea of active society, innovative economy, or the improvement of Polish tourist offer competitiveness abroad.
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Content available remote The meaning of territory for social sciences and culture
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EN
Relevance of space and territory for the social world and ethnic and national groups is discussed in this article. The analysis of the meaning of the terms 'territory' and 'space' (social and natural) in various social sciences, such as: sociology, psychology, sociobiology (resp. evolutionary psychology), human geography and cultural anthropology is undertaken by the author. The author also analyses the akin categories in these sciences (such as: aggression, violence, border, territorialism, behaviour setting, ecosystem, social and personal distance), which are used to create theories of social space and human behaviour. The fenomenological and anthropological analysis of the category 'territory' constitutes a considerable part of the text. A conception of the theoretical framework of the term 'ontological residuum' in social sciences is also presented in the article (according to - for example - the theory of culture by Antonina Kloskowska). The intention of the author is to concentrate mainly on the ethnic and national sense of the categories under discussion. Therefore the concept of the ethnic constructions on the base of a territory is also presented in the text.
EN
Each of the German political parties that entered the Bundestag after the election of 2009 (CDU/CSU, SPD, FDP, Die Linke and Bundnis 90/Die Grunen) devoted much space in their election programs to issues of cultural policy and culture. The catalog of problems to which attention was drawn overlapped at many points, sometimes differing only in emphasis. Issues highlighted by all the parties included among others: strengthening the status of culture by a regulation in the Constitution that would impose mandatory support of culture by the state; favoring freedom of culture and art and its widespread accessibility; maintaining cultural diversity and investing in the development of cultural and creative economy (Kultur- und Kreativwirtschaft). Willingness was also declared to improve artists' working conditions and material situation by creating more feasible (tax and legal) regulations for the development of their artistic production (including effective protection of copyright laws) and a better system of health/retirement insurance. The need was emphasized to support public institutions in the cultural sphere and the German film industry. Greater activity was called for in the domain of foreign cultural policy, cultivation of the culture of memory, the role of cultural education, etc. All the parties noted the importance of cultural issues as an element of building national identity, expressing their will to improve the existing situation so as to create more optimal conditions and opportunities for the development of culture and the arts.
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Content available remote K PROBLEMATIKE INŠTITUCIONÁLNEJ ŠTRUKTÚRY KULTÚRY
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EN
The article deals with the topic of institutional structure of the generic culture in the context of contemporary discourse among social sciences. The author reflects selected institutional models of culture (Lawless, Gažová), the general nature of man-made institutions as presented in cultural studies, pointing at the widening lag between ideal and real culture as a result of postmodern tensions in value sphere.
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The article is about searching for cultural authenticity of the Moroccan society – “the country of setting sun” – in the perspective of booming tourism. The first part of the article presents a short characteristic of some chosen aspects of the unusually colorful Moroccan culture. Then, the most important reasons for the disappearance of the genuine face of the country, seized by tourist industry and striving for better future as well as for recognition on the world market, are shown. The attempt to adopt the rules imposed by “the modern times momentum” is often connected with some form of sacrifice as well as the loss of essence of identity and individuality. The next part of the article touches the issue of ethics in tourism. Certain examples help to picture the ethical attitudes visible in the relations between Moroccans and the arriving tourists. Next, the article presents the phenomenon of folclorization and the cultural “show” for tourists, which results from the cultural authenticity disappearance. In the last part of the article, the analysis of a survey carried out among Moroccans is presented. The survey studies the degree of tradition and identity disappearance, as well as the inhabitants’ attitude towards the booming tourism.
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Content available remote EUROPEAN IDENTITY: NEGATION OF NATIONAL IDENTITIES OR THEIR ENRICHMENT
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EN
The article poses a question: does an European identity exist, and if it does, what elements constitute this notion. It concentrates on such notions, as national identity and culture. From the very outset the idea of a united European culture was a basis on which economic and political community was supposed to originate. Intensified integration processes within the European Union demanded that such elements as national identity: culture, language, religion be redefined. Despite constant emphasis on cultural aspects of unification, the process of shaping European identity will not depend on proclamations or treatises. The decisive influence on its shape will be exerted by the Europeans themselves. They need to find a plane for shared common values (human rights, democracy, legal state). The author postulates a European identity as resulting from an identification with a number of communities - national and continental. Only identity understood in this way will not neglect a national diversity and will not lead to a collapse of individual national cultures.
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Content available remote CROSS-CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (Zarzadzanie wiedza miedzykulturowa)
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EN
Many articles on knowledge management deal with the knowledge 'as such'. The authors neither specify what kind of knowledge they have in mind nor identify the knowledge with innovation and development of employees and their company. However there isn't only one type of knowledge in the organization. Different employees need the knowledge from different areas and a given employee looks for a different knowledge than his or her colleagues although this knowledge may come from the same area. Additionally, various types of knowledge require specific approaches to knowledge management. The article focuses on managing the cross-cultural knowledge, meaning the knowledge how cultural differences influence international business. Global managers need and expect different type of cross-cultural knowledge than expatriates or local employees cooperating with international partners. Managing intercultural knowledge must take into consideration the characteristic of the firm and specific groups of its employees.
EN
The systematic and interdisciplinary study of relations between technology and culture is at the core of one project at the Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT). This text introduces the institutional background of this project as well as some early activities and first results. After that it focuses on the theoretical foundations for the concepts of technology and culture being used in this project. Based on these thoughts the correlation between technology and culture is being illustrated and some examples of its interdependencies are given. Finally some concluding theses are presented.
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Content available remote Fenomen transgresji – perspektywy ujęc
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The subject of the present paper is transgression as an essential feature of nature and human existence. The first part presents approaches to the wonder of transgression from the perspective of various standpoints worked out on grounds of humanistic thought. The subsequent parts of the paper refer to the system of theorems developing assumptions of the concept of transgressive man, and present various dimensions of transgressive activities by which human beings express the subjectivity of their participation in culture.
EN
The question about the essence of theoretical pedagogical knowledge constitutes the keynote of the article. The author justifies that one of the fundamental elements of this knowledge is the knowledge of men and their growing up, but it is insufficient to describe and analyze the educational situation of contemporary man. According to the author, an important source of this knowledge is the knowledge of human culture in their local dimension with regard to tradition and civilization change as well as its diverse spheres.
EN
The article discusses socio-cultural periodicals that were legally published (and censored) in the 1980s. Two periods are clearly distinguishable, with the martial law of 13 December 1981 acting as a dividing line. Beginning from 1982, those periodicals were losing their readership due to the fact that some publicists were banned while others became regular contributors to the underground press or periodicals published abroad. The research was conducted using archival documents from the Archives of New Records (AAN) and OBP RSW reports
EN
The article discusses important yet little-known facts from the history of the monthly 'Zdanie' in 1978-1988 based on the notes kept by the author, who was one of the paper's editors, and the editorial archives.
EN
The paper deals with the perceived hegemony of American mass culture in Poland and its effects on young people. It is argued that the supposed 'Americanization' of Poland through Hollywood films does not constitute any serious threat to Polish national identity, and in fact has little to do with any genuine American cultural influence. Rather, it amounts to the passing adoption of American styles. Explaining that Hollywood is an internationally owned and operated force that works more to appeal to the tastes of the worldwide audience than America's, it is concluded that the globalization of American cinema is more a threat to the U.S.A. national identity than that of other countries. Additionally, the fact that many Americans such as right-wing politicians and conservative Southerners and Midwesterners have viewed Hollywood antagonistically from its inception, indicates the degree to which it should not be considered as representative of American culture or the nation as a whole. Likewise, the content of Hollywood's films has almost nothing to do with the reality of the country it happens to rest in. To illustrate the point that Poland does not suffer from Americanization, American and Polish national characteristics are detailed to demonstrate the vast differences between the world views and cultures of these two nations and peoples. Ultimately, it is suggested that there has been no significant internal cultural impact on Polish youth due to contact with American entertainment, other than on the surface in the form of fashion and appearance. Also, they are becoming more and more derisive of American mass culture as time passes. Therefore, core Polish attitudes have not become more American and the Polish culture, which has survived so much in the past, has very little to fear from the vapid Hollywood fantasy land a continent away.
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