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Content available remote Comparative analysis of endurance of not hearing and hearing students
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EN
Study aim: Sport participation is important for deaf children, as participants experience physical, psychological and social benefits [23]. This study is a summary of four year’s researches on the endurance level of deaf and well hearing girls and boys. The aim of this study was to compare endurance of not hearing and hearing students. Material and methods: 300 students aged 12, 14 and 16 from six Warsaw’s schools participated in the study. Students were divided into 12 groups according to three criterions: hearing impairment level, gender and age. The physical fitness was measured with laboratory methods. There was „inclined plane” measurement set used to estimate the endurance level. From the biomechanical point of view the measure of endurance is change of power versus time and total work. Results: The study result’s proved significant differences only between boy’s group. Deaf and hearing girls presented similar level of their endurance parameters. The significant differences in results of deaf and well-hearing students were observed in the groups of 14 years old boys. Deaf male students presented 23% lower (p < 0.01) values of maximal power in comparison to their hearing peers. Yet, they were more capable of sustaining the power developed for a longer time, which is proved by significantly higher (33%; p < 0.001) regression coefficient b. Since maximal power level was lower, the executed work was also significantly lower comparing to well-hearing students’ results. Conclusion: Research proved that deaf students do not vary from their well-hearing peers with regard to the energetic potential. Differences described in the literature and recorded in our research are probably the result of environmental (social) factors and different models of gaining movement habits.
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Content available remote Relationship between Muscle Strength and Front Crawl Swimming Velocity
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EN
Purpose. competitive performance in swimming depends on a number of factors including, among others, the development of relevant muscle groups. The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between muscle strength and swimming velocity and the role of individual muscle groups in front crawl swimming. Methods. sixteen physical education university students participated in the study. The strength values, defined as torque produced during isometric contractions, of eight upper and lower extremity muscle groups were measured. Data were compared with participants' front crawl swim times in the 25m and 50m distances. Results. correlation analysis demonstrated a relationship between muscle strength and swimming velocity. statistically significant relationships were observed between swimming velocity and the torque values of the elbow flexor and shoulder extensor muscles as well as the sum of upper extremity muscle torque values (p ⋋ 0.05). Conclusions. The results indicate the need for a focus on training those muscle groups identified as having a statistically significant relationship with swimming velocity for a given distance, as the sample showed deficiencies in the strength of those muscle groups responsible for generating propulsive force in the front crawl. Additionally, the collected data can serve as a diagnostic tool in evaluating the development of muscle groups critical for swimming performance.
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Content available remote Anaerobic endurance of young untrained male and female subjects
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EN
Study aim: To assess the anaerobic endurance of untrained male and female subjects by applying repeated maximal exercises.Material and methods: Untrained male subjects aged 23 - 27 years (n = 17, body height 170 - 197 cm, body mass 65 - 110 kg) and female ones aged 20 - 25 years (n = 10, body height 168 - 184 cm, body mass 55 - 86 kg) performed 6 maximal cycle ergometer (CE) exercises (64 flywheel revolutions each, spaced by 15 s intermissions, the load amounting to 75 g per kg body mass) and 6 bouts of 10 push-offs on an inclined plane device (IP). Mean and maximal relative power outputs were recorded, the ratio of the two - the performance index (PI), served as a measure of anaerobic performance.Results: Men attained significantly higher maximum power outputs than women in both tests but the respective PI values were in both genders alike. Highest power outputs amounted to 10.80 ± 0.91 and 9.45 ± 0.43 W/kg (cycle ergometer) for men and women, respectively, and to 20.06 ± 3.78 and 13.70 ± 1.88 W/kg (inclined plane) for men and women, respectively. No significant differences between genders were found for the PI values in either test but significant within-gender differences were detected between tests: mean PI values (±SD) amounted to 0.799 ± 0.052 and 0.850 ± 0.063 for men (p<0.01), and 0.803 ± 0.030 and 0.875 ± 0.078 for women (p<0.05), for CE and IP, respectively.Conclusions: The performance index enabled comparing male and female subjects, as well as different exercise tests consisting of repeated, short, maximal exercises, with respect to anaerobic endurance.
EN
Introduction The problem of constipation in Poland concerns 13.4% of the healthy population. In the case of patients treated with opioids, this number increases to 70-90%, which constitutes a serious problem that lowers the patients' quality of life. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of abdominal massage, which successfully reduces constipation in various diseases, on palliative care patients. Material and methods The research included 18 patients of a palliative care facility (mean age 78.3 ± 10 years), 11 of whom completed the study. The study participants were randomly divided into two groups, i.e. a pilot group (abdominal massage and kinesiotherapy) and a control group (kinesiotherapy). The therapy lasted 8 weeks and blind evaluation was carried out once per week. The study involved evaluating constipation intensity (The Bowel Function Index), the frequency of defecation (medical documentation) and abdomen circumference (anthropometric tape). The collected data were analysed statistically with the use of Statistica software. Results The observed differences between the studied groups undergoing different therapies in subsequent weeks were not statistically significant. However, in the group in which abdominal massage was implemented, a decrease in the intensity of constipation, an increase in the frequency of defecation and a reduction in abdomen circumference were noted compared to the control group. The patients also indicated additional positive effects of this form of therapy, i.e. an improvement in breathing, easier urination, release of excessive gas and abdominal pain reduction. Conclusions The collected data led to the conclusion that abdominal massage may result in a decrease in disorders accompanying opioid-induced constipation. Therefore, it is worth considering the implementation of this form of therapy in the case of patients in an advanced stage of cancer. There is also a need for further research in this field which will include a larger number of patients.
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